Author Archives: Damian Shiels

About Damian Shiels

I am an archaeologist based in Ireland, specialising in conflict archaeology.

The Children’s Christmas in Midleton Workhouse

Through the second half of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century Christmas brought with it an expectation of charitable aid to the poor around the town, manifested through initiatives like the Christmas Coal Fund, which aimed to help those less fortunate in meeting the added burden of heating their homes during Winter. The unfortunate inmates of Midleton Workhouse (now Midleton Hospital) were another group who benefited from Yuletide initiatives, offering an all too brief respite from the desperate conditions in which they found themselves. During the late 19th century, one of the biggest Christmas events in the town was the annual event held for the Workhouse children, when presents and entertainments (such as music, magic lantern shows and even hypnotists) were laid on by the town’s more fortunate inhabitants.

Midleton Workhouse, now Midleton Hospital (workhouses.org)

Midleton Workhouse, now Midleton Hospital (workhouses.org)

One of the earliest references to Christmas in Midleton Workhouse appears in the Leinster Express of 25th December 1852. At the conclusion of the Famine, the paper noted that the poor in Waterford Workhouse were being given 1lb of beef each for dinner on Christmas Day, while at Midleton “the paupers have been treated to reduced rations.” Later Christmases did bring some respite, as noted by the Cork Examiner on 20th December 1875. By that date the tradition of giving gifts to the Workhouse children each year had been established. On 23rd December 1875 some of the most notable people of the locality– including Mrs. T.S. Coppinger, Mrs. Ashlin, Mrs. S. Coppinger, Miss. Fitzgerald, Miss Power, Rev. D. Lynch and the Rev. PJ Horgan– arrived to distirbute the gifts. They were handed out in the girls’ school room, which was decorated for the occasion with laurels and “appropriate mottoes” including a “Caed-mille-failthe” display made from ivy leaves intertwined with shamrocks. One of the boys in the Workhouse read out an address, which thanked Mrs. Coppinger and the Board of Guardians for their interest in the children’s welfare. Father Lynch responded to express his:

“satisfaction…at the good order and regularity which they saw exhibited by the children; exhorted them to be always kind and forebearing to each other; obedient and respectful to their superiors, and by doing so, to merit a renewal of the favours shown to them by Mrs. Coppinger and the other kind ladies who had come forward so generously to contribute to their happiness at this holy season.”

children_at_crumpsall_workhouse_circa_1895

Children at Crumpsall Workhouse in England, c. 1895. The Midleton children likely presented a similar appearance (Manchester Archives)

In line with Victorian concepts of the deserving poor, Father Lynch also exhorted the children to:

“pay the greatest attention to their school studies and the other duties appertaining to their station in life, reminding them that they were in possession of advantages denied to a great many poor children in the world. By doing so they would make themselves respectable and useful members of society…”.

Following the speeches Mrs. Coppinger distributed the gifts, which included sweetmeats and toys, while the children also sang a number of songs. The newspaper noted that:

“The joy shown on the faces of the little ones as each new and wonderful toy was presented, created the greatest amusement to the visitors, who, when departing, declared themselves highly gratified with the day’s proceedings, which wound up with a three times three for the ladies.”

Victorian Christmas Tree

A Victorian-era Christmas Tree. The gifts for the Midleton Workhouse children were placed on the tree and a draw was held to see who received what. There were usually different gifts for girls and boys, and in addition sweets and exotic fruits were often also to be found on the tree (Harper’s Bazaar)

Christmas entertainments for the poor children remained a common theme at the Workhouse, and Mrs. T.S. Coppinger maintained a long association with it. More than a decade later, the 24th December 1887 edition of the Cork Examiner recorded that she had brought the children tea, sweets, sweetcakes, toys and books, and noted that she:

“has never forgotten to visit the Midleton Workhouse at this festive season of Christmas, and her efforts to afford the juvenile inmates of the Midleton Workhouse a happy Christmas will bring to herself many happy returns of the coming New Year.”

The tradition of giving to the children was still alive in the 1890s. On 11th January 1896 the Cork Examiner reported that the poor children of the Workhouse had been given their Christmas treat “through the generosity of the kind-hearted people of the town,” and a Christmas tree laden with “dainties and nick-nacks” was also provided for them. The children were allocated their gift from the tree via a draw (among the exotics that adorned it were fruits, such as oranges).

Christmas also saw the annual erection of a crib in the Workhouse Chapel. There was often additional charity for the older inmates of the Workhouse as well. In 1897 all the Workhouse residents were able to enjoy an evening of vocal and musical entertainment, together with a magic lantern show of continental scenes put on by P. Hallinan of Avoncore. The room in the Workhouse where the show was held was festively decorated, and during intervals songs and piano forte solos were given by local amateur musicians. A similar gift-giving exercise for the children in 1897 also included the distribution of tobacco and snuff to the aged and infirm inmates, though bad weather that year meant that the “kind ladies and gentlemen of the town, who annually patronise the workhouse entertainments were precluded from attending on this occasion” (Cork Examiner 9th January 1897, 11th January 1898).

lanternslideshow1897b

In 1897 P. Hallinan of Avoncore put on a magic lantern show at the Workhouse. This was an extremely popular form of entertainment in the late 19th century. This image shows a magic lantern show in the United States in 1897, where an image of St. Peter’s Basilica is being shown to the audience (T.H. McAllister Company)

The Christmas Fete at Midleton Workhouse continued into the 20th century. One wonders what became of many of these children who, at least for one day, found themselves a focus of attention. To give readers a flavour of how the event was reported, below is a full transcript of the article on the proceedings from the Cork Examiner of 9th January 1901:

FETE AT MIDLETON WORKHOUSE

The annual fete and entertainment for the enjoyment of the children at the Midleton Workhouse came off in the schoolroom of that institution on Sunday last, in the presence of a large number of the townspeople. The general attendance also included- the Very Rev Canon Hutch, PP, DD, VF, Midleton; Rev CS O’Connor, CC, do, and the Nuns of the Workhouse. The room was tastefully decorated with evergreens and suitable mottoes, and in the centre was a large Christmas Tree heavily laden with a fine selection of toys and other gifts for the children, kindly provided through the generosity of the townspeople. When the proceedings began at two o’clock the whole surroundings presented a very pleasing aspect, and one could not fail being struck by the bright and happy faces of the little ones as they filed into their allotted seats under the care of their teachers, Mr and Mrs O’Sullivan, their school-teachers. A beautiful supply of cake, tea, and fruit was distributed amongst them by the good nuns, and whilst engaged in the agreeable occupation of doing justice for the good things provided, the entertainment of vocal and instrumental music was proceeded with. The first item was a song with chorus, “The Holy City,” by Mr W Ronayne, who was heard with much pleasure, and being loudly encored he sang with much feeling and expressions, “The Tempest of the Heart.” Mr D O’Sullivan, a Cork baritone of great promise, sang tastefully, “Savourneen Deelish,” his rich deep voice and fine intonation being highly appreciated. Mr John Bastible acquitted himself well in the rendering of “Queen of the Earth,” and was followed, by Mr William Cashman, whose fine tenor voice was heard in the singing of “When other Lips,” for which he was deservedly encored. The selections from “Les Cloches de Cornville” played on the violin by Miss Fitzgerald, with piano accompaniment by Mr C Byrne, was admirably performed, the uniqueness of touch and execution displayed by this youthful performer being much appreciated. The principal feature of the entertainment was the hypnotic exhibition given by Mr P C Leahy, Midleton, which was simply marvellous, the audience being amazed at the many strange feats in the hypnotic trance. This concluded the entertainment, after which the different prizes on the Christmas Tree were drawn for and distributed by the nuns. The Rev Canon Hutch then addressed a few felicitous remarks to the children, congratulating them on the success of the entertainment, and on their behalf he thanked the Nuns, the Master (Mr Daly) Mr and Mrs O’Sullivan, and also the various gentlemen who contributed to the entertainment. Three hearty cheers were then given by the youthful audiences for all the visitors who had so kindly attended, and did so much brighten and relieve the monotony of their Workhouse lives, and lusty cheers were also given for the esteemed Pastor, the Nuns, and the Master, Mr Daly, to whom much credit is due.

Hypnotism Show

Hypnotism Shows were popular forms of entertainment at the turn of the 20th century. PC Leahy of Midleton put on such a show at Midleton Workhouse in 1901 (Extravagance of Hypnotism).

Further Reading

Workhouses.org: Midleton Workhouse

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“The People Seem Odd & Talk Funny”: US Sailors Write About Cork During World War One

Between 1917 and 1919 thousands of American servicemen were stationed in Cork during World War One. What did they make of their surroundings? Back in the United States, local newspapers were eager to get correspondence from them, and family’s regularly contributed letters for local publication. We have identified a number, and reproduce them in full below. Here are descriptions from Americans based in Cobh, Aghada, Berehaven and Whiddy, with fascinating insights into both their service and their thoughts on Ireland and Irish people.

The first letter was written by Berkley Harker, who served aboard USS Trippe out of Cork Harbour. Berkley was also the pitcher for the vessel’s baseball team, and participated in the famous baseball game at the Mardyke Cricket Grounds in 1917. The letter was published in The Morning New Bernian in North Carolina on 18th August 1917.

NEW BERN BOY ON ‘SUB’ CHASER IN DANGER ZONE

Berkley Harker Writes of Picking Up British Crew, and of Sinking U-Boat

PITCHES BASEBALL GAME IN IRELAND

Mr. Berkley Harker, who is serving in the navy on one of Uncle Sam’s fighting ships, has written a most interesting letter to his mother, Mrs. James A. Harker, of this city. The letter was written in Queenstown, Ireland, on the first of August, and mailed in Newark, N.J., on the fifteenth by a member of the crew of an American oil tanker which sailed from Queenstown on the first. The letter in part follows:

“We have had some of the war and came out successful, no one being hurt. One time we picked up seventy-five survivors from an English merchant ship which had been sunk by a submarine. We were unable to find the sub, as it disappeared. We have seen three subs so far and dropped mines for them, and we are sure we got one, as we saw oil and some wood come up after we dropped the mine. The mine is set to explode at a certain depth, so when we sight a sub we run right over it and drop one of them.

We have a good baseball team, and I am the pitcher. We play every time we come in, but that is not often as we go to sea for five days and only stay in three. We have been to France and to Liverpool since we have been over here and we expect to go to London the last of this month for two weeks.

We are now on County Cork and only thirty-five miles from City Cork. The city has a population of about seventy-five thousand and is just about as lively as Beaufort.”

Mr. Harker enclosed a clipping from a Cork paper giving an account of a game of baseball played there between teams from the U.S.S. Trippe (Mr. Harker’s team) and the U.S.S. Melville, which is very interesting [the report of the game for the Cork Examiner clipping follows]

The Morning New Bernian 18th August 1917

uss_trippe_dd-33

USS Trippe, victors of the Cork baseball game and the vessel on which Berkley Harker served (Naval History and Heritage Command)

The next letter was written by Lieutenant John Herlihy, who was based at the USNAS base in Aghada. He had interesting things to say about visits to a local castle (likely Rostellan) and the situation of people in Ireland. It was published in the Massachusetts Fitchburg Sentinel on 1st June 1918.

LIEUT. HERLIHY VISITS AN OLD CASTLE IN IRELAND

Lieut. John E. Herlihy, formerly a dentist in this city, is now stationed at the U.S. Naval air station at Queenstown Ireland [Aghada]. In a letter to his brother, Dr. David J. Herlihy, 304 Main street, he gives a description of his work and tells of a visit to an old castle that is located near the station.

He writes:

I have been fairly busy for a couple of weeks now and as a result I have not had any time to take any jaunts into the country.

I am operating here with a portable field outfit, collapsible chair, foot engine, and student case to hold instruments, something very similar to the outfit we used in school. The office cannot begin to compare with my office on the Missouri, but of course I can do the necessary work and that is all that is wanted.

There is hardly anything to do for excitement around here and in time I imagine it will get quite monotonous, though we are kept busy.

I generally go to town for weekends to meet the boys and to get the latest information about the war. We very seldom see any regular papers around here and I imagine you know more about what is going on on the western front than I do. I have many opportunities to talk with allied officers who have returned from the front and it is mighty interesting to listen to their experiences.

There is an old landowner who lives quite near here. I go over to have tea with him quite often. He has a wonderful estate of 1000 acres and some of the most beautiful gardens that I have ever seen. He lives in an old castle over 600 years old and he has taken me all through it. The walls of the castle are six feet thick and, of course, were built that way as a protection against attack in the old feudal period.

He showed me one room that had been built especially for King George IV who made a visit to the castle and who always objected to sleeping in a room that had ever been used by any one else. He showed me curios, antiques and paintings that he has collected from all over the world and they in themselves are worth a fortune. He and his wife live all alone in the castle and have a large coterie of servants.

After seeing how people have to live in this part of the world and what little they have to be glad about I am fully convinced that a man in the States even working for a salary is better off than a man with money over here– at least as far as enjoying life is concerned.

I know that by the time I see Fitchburg again, I will have had enough of traveling around, and I will be perfectly satisfied to settle down. By the looks of things now I do not expect to see the States again for a couple of years. Of course we can not tell just how long this war is going to last but we do know the allies are in for a finish fight.

I see Harold Pierce quite often and talk over old times. Try to write when you can as I would like to keep in touch with the latest news.

Fitchburg Sentinel, 1st June 1918

The video we recently produced on the WW1 USNAS Base at Aghada, where Lieutenant John Herlihy was based.

The next letter was published in Pennsylvania’s Wilkes-Barre Record on 27th August 1918. Thomas Bedner was also stationed at Aghada. He describes their pastimes in Cobh, their reception from the locals, and also a trip to the Blarney Stone.

LETTER FROM IRELAND

NORTH MAIN STREET BOY WRITES INTERESTINGLY FROM QUEENSTOWN

Thomas R. Bedner, son of A. Bedner, of North Main street enlisted in the naval aviation service early last fall, and is stationed at Queenstown, Ireland, at the naval air station. Before his enlistment he had been employed in mechanical capacities in Detroit automobile capacities in Detroit automobile work and at Bridgeport, Conn. Although not in the draft, Mr. Bedner decided to give his country the benefit of his skilled mechanical training and enlisted in the naval aviation. He writes to his father that he is in line for promotion and that his mechanical ability has stood him in good stead at the training station.

The following letter was received by his father. It contains interesting information of Ireland, the quaint customs and the conditions surrounding the navy boys stationed there:

“Dear Father– Well, everything is going fine with me here. We get ‘liberty’ every night and many of these free evenings we go to Queenstown where the Y.M.C.A. and Sailors’ Club have been established. Here we have movies every night– concerts by the ship’s band every Thursday night and a show and pictures every Saturday night. It’s about the only place in Ireland where we can buy ice cream.

“About a half mile from the club we have a dance auditorium. All civilians are excluded. The ship’s orchestra usually plays only American dance music, but once in a while they strike up an Irish tune, and then believe me the coleens are right there to whirl us around.

“These are about the only amusement places. If we do not feel like attending any of these we take long walks and visit some of the queer old villages. No street cars are seen around here. In some of the places they never saw a ‘Yank’ before. As soon as they see one or a group of us passing there is a general popping of heads out of windows as if there was a circus coming.

“During the summer there is only about five hours of darkness here. It is about 11 o’clock before it even starts to get dark. While I am writing this letter it is 9:30 and the sun is still bright in the sky. We don’t have to worry about lightless nights.

“Was to Blarny Castle when I first landed here and enjoyed the interesting experience of kissing the blarney stone. I almost broke my neck though before I managed to reach it. To kiss this stone, which is said to bless the person with ‘the gift of gab,’ it is necessary to go inside the castle, climb to the top window and then have someone you know who has a strong right arm to hold you by the feet with head down.

“A cemetery in which the Lusitania victims are buried is situated about two miles from Queenstown. All the sailors march there in a body on Decoration Day to decorate the graves with flowers. Many of the monuments and tombstones contain the inscription, ‘A Lusitania Victim; Foully Murdered by Germany.’

“It has been raining about every day this month. The weather is more like December than July and the mornings are very chilly.

“Would like to get the Record once in a while. I haven’t seen a Wilkes-Barre paper since I have been here.

“Give my regards to all and write soon,

“Your son,

“Tom.”

The Wilkes-Barre Record 27th August 1918

thomas-r-bedner

An image of Thomas Bedner that accompanied his letter in the Wilkes-Barre Record (Wilkes-Barre Record)

There was another USNAS base on Whiddy Island in Bantry Bay. C.E. Durgee had correspondence about their 4th July celebrations published in The Daily Gate and Constitution-Democrat of Keokuk, Iowa on 14th September 1918.

AMERICAN Y.M.C.A. WORK IN WHIDDY ISLAND, BANTRY, IRELAND

BY C.E. DURGEE, GENERAL SECRETARY, WASHINGTON INN FOR AMERICAN OFFICERS, ST. JAMES’ SQUARE, LONDON, S.W.

With more of our men coming in here now, there is plenty of work to do. On the Fourth of July we had a great day– a baseball game in the morning, score 8-10, and in the afternoon a field meet, with the usual entries. The captain and officers attended; some played ball, and the men all voted it a great success. In the evening there was a mock trial, and a sing-song rounded out a most perfect day. The weather could not have been improved upon, and many of the men said they would never forget the Fourth of July on Whiddy “island.”

The captain sprang a surprise in the way of a flag raising, and now Old Glory floats in the breeze and cheers the hears of the brave men who are willing to lay down their lives in her defense. E. Evans has been quite ill and was sent to Queenstown by the doctor for observation. He is a very valuable man as an educator and in religious lines.

Arrangements are being made to chaperon a party to Killarney next Sunday. The captain here is very helpful and gracious, and told me that as long as we kept the men satisfied, to go as far as I liked. A number of fellows are wanting to send money home, and I think it should be encouraged. I don’t want the least opportunity to escape to be of service to these fine fellows. We have a dandy camp; the water supply is a problem, but the men are happy and willing to do anything.

Last night after “chow” we converted an almost impossible stony field into a respectable diamond. We had two auto trucks and hauled dirt and filled up holes, and all worked very hard. You can count on our sticking tight and making the best of whatever we have on hand here.

The Daily Gate and Constitution-Democrat, 14th September 1918

024px-cobh-lusitania-memorial-2012

The memorial to the Lusitania victims in Cobh Old Church Cemetery. The site was regularly visited by US sailors during the war. (Bjorn Christian Torrissen)

The most detailed description covered here was an account of Cobh from a Mr. Lockey in the Oregon Daily Journal of 26th November 1918. He spoke about the surrounds of the town in detail, together with a visit to the Lusitania graves and conversations he had alone the way with local children and a U.S. sailor from Idaho.

JOURNAL MAN AT HOME

At Queenstown Mr. Lockley reverently makes a pilgrimage to view the graves of those murdered on the Lusitania. He falls in with a bluejacket from Idaho, whose remarks are entertaining. There is also a word picture of Cork harbor.

Queenstown is on an island in Cork harbor. In the old says the city was called Cove, or the Cove of Cork. When Queen Victoria visited the city in 1849 it was renamed in her honor, Queenstown. Hundreds of thousands of Irish who are now Americans have had their last sight of Ireland at Queenstown as they stepped from Irish soil to the steamer that took them to the land of promise, for Queenstown is the principal port of embarkation for America. “You will see sailors from all the world ports on our streets in peace time,” said the hotel proprietor to me, “but nowadays the streets are thronged with men of the British navy, and your lads.”

R.J. Wynne, a Welshman who was born at North, Kan., and who is Y.M.C.A. secretary at Queenstown, said to me: “On Sunday, September 15, I had every bluejacket who came in register. Here is the list. There were 366 bluejackets who dropped into the ‘Y’ during the day. Every state in the Union but Idaho and Wyoming was represented.”

Cork harbor, from the heights above Queenstown, is a sight worth coming far to see. Scores of ships of every description ride at anchor in the harbor– transports and trawlers, destroyers and square-riggers, warships and tiny gasoline launches. Late one afternoon I decided to walk across the island beyond Spy Hill, where the farmer folk still speak their native Irish tongue. I stopped a black-haired, bright eyed little girl of 12 or 14 and asked her if I was on the road to Spy Hill. “Sure, sir, you are on the wrong road, altogether. You are going entirely away from it, sir.” “Where am I going?” I inquired. “I don’t know, sir, but if you keep on the road you are on now you will be after going to the cemetery. Many Americans go there to see the graves of the people who were drowned on the Lusitania. There are 260 buried in three big graves.” “How do I get there? Are there any turns in the road?” I inquired. “You will be after going straight along and the first you know straight ahead, sir. The road is very crooked, but just follow the turns you’re there.”

Presently I met a sailor lad who came onto the main road from a country lane. I said: “Do you know where the Lusitania victims are buried?” “Yes, sir. I’ll be glad to go with you and show you the place,” he said. The stone walls on both sides of the road were covered with blackberry vines that were loaded with ripe berries. We stopped now and then to eat berries. “My name is Ben Potter,” said the bluejacket. “My home is at Swan valley, in Idaho. It is about 30 miles from Idaho Falls, on the road from Pocatello to Butte, Mont. I just got a letter today from my mother. She says my youngest brother, 17 years old, has enlisted. there are four boys in our family, and all are in the service now. Say, this is some different from running a disc harrow on our 320-acre ranch in Idaho. The other day I had a seven-day furlough. I went to visit my brother in England. We went out to see a big Handley-Page plane go up. We asked the officer if we could do up. He said he was sorry, but it was against orders. he started the propeller. It made so much racket you couldn’t hear anything else. My brother said, “Let’s climb in just as he starts. he won’t know, and when he gets up he won’t throw us out.” So we got aboard. We hadn’t been up more than a minute or two till the officer looked back and saw he had some stowaways. He grinned at us and then turned around and headed the plane towards the seacoast. We got up about 4000 feet, and his engine died. he got it started again, and in about an hour we flew back to where we started. When we landed we thanked him. He said, “It is against orders to take up passengers. I didn’t have any. I took up some ballast. If the ballast enjoyed the trip, I am glad of it.” He was a pretty good sport, all right.”

We turned in at the old graveyard with its old world orderliness and its ancient Irish crosses over the graves. Soon we came to three large mounds, each of which was about 20×30 feet. The inscription stated that here were buried the victims of the Lusitania, torpedoed near that port. We stood silent. Finally my companion said, “Well, I would like to be home, but I don’t want to go till Germany is taught, and taught for all time, that murdering women and children can’t be done. I guess it’s up to us to help make the world a safe and decent place to live in.”

We started for the crest of a nearby hill, from which, like a panorama, the whole harbor was unrolled like a scroll before us. “I weigh 187, and I have to train down to 175 within the next 10 days, as I represent my ship in a wrestling match that is being pulled off,” said my companion. “I met a likeable chap recently– one that could ask as many questions as you can. His name was Peter Clark McFarlane. He invited me to his room and I spent the evening with him. He told me he was writing a series of articles for the Saturday Evening Post. I am going to watch and see if he mentions Queenstown and the fleet here, and if he does I am going to send the copy of the Post to my mother.”

Presently we found a sunken road bordered with ancient elms and beeches. I said: “Here is a regular trench, or ravine. We can make our way down it to the harbor.” “They drive their cows down these sunken roads, so I guess its name is a bovine rather than a ravine,” said my friend, the bluejacket. It was getting dark, so he hurried down to the dock to catch the “liberty boat” back to his ship, while I stood on a high point and looked out toward Forts Camden and Carlisle, which face each other across the entrance of the harbor. In the foreground was the lofty spire of the granite gray cathedral of St. Colman. Across the water a few miles lay Aghada, our naval aviation station, and not far from it was Crosshaven, near which is the amber-colored Owenabwee river, referred to in the plaintive Jacobite ballad of which the following is a verse:

“On Carrigdhoun the heath is brown,

The clouds are dark on Ardnalee,

And many a stream comes racing down

To swell the angry Owenabwee

The moaning blast is whistling past,

Through many a leafless tree,

But I’m alone, for he is gone;

My hawk has flown. Ochone Machree!”

The Oregon Daily Journal 26th November 1918

1024px-blarney_castle

Blarney Castle and the Blarney Stone was a popular destination for American sailors during their service in Ireland in World War One (Guilhem D.)

The San Francisco Chronicle of 22nd December 1918 brought a letter from a sailor who described his work aboard USS Allen, attacking U-Boats from Cork Harbour. He had also made a visit to the Blarney Stone, and was very protective of service in the Navy.

BOY SERVING OFF IRELAND WRITES HOME

Destruction of a German submarine by the explosion of an “Ash Can” dropped from a destroyer, the deck of which is seen in the photograph, which was sent to George A. Tracy by his son in the Navy.

GEORGE A TRACY RECEIVES LETTER FROM SON IN TRANSPORT CONVOY SECTION AT QUEENSTOWN

Personal experiences in dropping “ash cans” on German submarines from the after deck of a United States destroyer are recounted in a letter received by George A. Tracy, president of the Civil Service Commission, from his son, George A. Tracy Jr., who has been in very active service off the Irish coast.

Remarking that now the censorship is lifted he can tell his story with more detail, young Tracy begins by stating that the base of operations of the U.S.S. Allen, to which he was attached, and known as Base 6, is at Queenstown, County Cork, Ireland.

Queenstown looks “half as large as Redwood City” to this San Franciscan, who says that in the early days of the war the shore liberty of the boys of the destroyer flotilla included the city of Cork, but that owing to a rather vigorous celebration there, the shore liberty was cut down to the limits of Queenstown.

“Tell your Irish friends I kissed the Blarney Stone,” he writes, “The Lusitania was sunk just five miles off the coast at Queenstown, and there is a buoy that marks the spot today.”

Patrolling the Irish coast and convoying ships on the run from Queenstown to Liverpool and to Brest was the work of the destroyer squadron to which young Tracy was attached, and to illustrate the character of the work sends a photograph taken from a destroyer and showing a German submarine being lifted from the water by the explosion of an “ash can.”

Expressing a high regard for the work of the land forces, young Tracy instructs his father to reprimand anyone who may express the idea that the boys of the Navy have not been doing big things while the censorship prevented the telling of all the details.

“If they boost soldiers too high, we might go on strike, and, now that we have got them over here, refuse to bring them back,” he says. “But, believe me, the trips from now on will be pleasure trips, rather than the hunting variety.”

In the course of his service in the war Tracy writes he had the opportunity to visit London and Southampton in England, and Brest and Harve in France, and take a three days inland journey in that country.

San Francisco Chronicle 22nd December 1918

san_francisco_chronicle_sun__dec_22__1918_

The image of a German U-Boat being destroyed by an “Ash-Can” that was carried in the San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco Chronicle)

Our final letter comes from a sailor serving aboard USS Oklahoma in Bantry Bay, one of the vessels that would later be one of those attacked by the Japanese at Pearl Harbor in 1941. William Hoffman was somewhat ignorant of the history of the area, believing that before the American arrival Bantry had been a German U-Boat base, though his views do provide an insight into some of the tensions that often existed between locals and American servicemen. He nonetheless though it a beautiful country, but confessed that he thought the people talked funny. His letter was published in the Lincoln County News, North Carolina on 20th December 1918.

SAILOR HOFFMAN OF THE NAVY WRITES

Mr. Fred L. Hoffman of this city, has received a letter from his son, Sailor William Hoffman, a portion of which we are printing below. The letter is dated U.S.S. Oklahoma, “Bantry Bay”, Ireland, Nov. 20, 1918.

“Well I am in Ireland. Our base has been here in Bantry Bay since we came across to this side. It is as you can see on the map in the Southern part of Ireland. It lies between high mountains which are in every direction you look. Before the U.S. entered the war it was a German submarine base and the Irish supplied them with provisions, etc., as a good many of them were in sympathy with Germany. But now it is an American naval base and there are battleships, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, sub-chasers, mine sweepers and layers and all other kinds of vessels here. Zed Crawford is in here on a submarine chaser but I haven’t seen him. We have been operating and conveying in the most dangerous part of the war zone. Before we came over more than 500 ships had been sunk here off the Irish coast where we are on duty. We have convoyed thousands of troops ammunition and food supplies, etc., and have been along the coast of France, England, Scotland and Ireland. Of course besides convoying, our main object over here was to fight the German highseas fleet when she came out, but they didn’t come out.

The country of Ireland is beautiful. It is always green and is terraced in plots or squares so that it looks exactly like a checker board. There are very few trees and it rains about 9 out of every 10 days. The people seem odd and talk funny. You can’t hardly understand a word they say. Their shoes are very thick and heavy, many of them have iron soles, and the women most always wear shawls. Most of the horses and mules are very small and their buggies or carts have seats on the sides and are much higher from the ground than ours. And their trains are just like toys beside those in America. there are many saloons but it a very serious offense for an American sailor to get drunk and the very few that do are severely dealt with. I don’t see how the people live around here as their gardens are very small. They raise lots of sheep and cattle. there are many old castles and things of that kind to see.

We go on recreation and liberty in Bere Island, Castletown and Bantry. On Bere Island there are British soldiers, some who have already been in the trenches and others who are preparing to go. They have barbedwire entanglements, real trenches and everything there is in this modern warfare. In a little house they have every kind of poisonous gas the Germans use. All of us went through it, of course with our gas masks on. Some gas, believe me.

We have aboard very often many big speakers from over here, also from the States, who have given us very fine and interesting lectures of the war, etc. We have shows from London and other places and moving pictures every night. I have been getting your letters and papers and you can’t imagine how much they are appreciated all the boys shout with joy when mail comes aboard. I am in excellent health and have been exceedingly lucky in the way of sickness for there was about 200 cases of “flu” on here awhile back. Six of our boys and our ordnance officer died. They were buried in Queenstown, Ireland. A good many of our ships, submarines etc., are going back to the States pretty soon, but I think we will be over here some little time yet. William.

The Lincoln County News 20th December 1918

We hope to share many more of these letters from U.S. servicemen stationed in Cork during World War One in the months ahead.

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USS Oklahoma in 1917, which William Hoffman served on in Bantry Bay. 429 of the crew died when she capsized following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941 (Naval History and Heritage Command)

Categories: World War One | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Visualising the Journeys of Irish Women who Married U.S. Navymen in World War One

We recently published the images and short biographies of 99 Irish women who applied for U.S. passports, based on either their marriage to a U.S. serviceman or their own services in support of the American military-effort during the First World War (see here). The data we collected offers us many potential insights, and we intend to use it to explore a number of different themes. In this post we have taken some of the data specifically relating to local women who married U.S. Naval personnel, and used it to visually map where they were from, and where they intended to make their new lives.

We identified 73 Irish women in the Passport applications who married U.S. Naval personnel serving in Ireland and Great Britain during the First World War. It should be noted that the vast bulk of these women had never been outside of Ireland prior to their marriage, and their intention to travel to the United States represented the first prospect of foreign travel for most of them. Up to 8,000 U.S. sailors served in or around Ireland at one time or another during the Great War, and it is no surprise that many struck up local romances. These liaisons with local women were often not welcomed by the local population, and occasionally led to violent clashes, particularly in Cork and Queenstown (Cobh) where the majority of bluejackets were based. The research of Dr. John Borgonovo of U.C.C. has shed considerable light on the often intense level of ill-feeling this created, and it will be something we explore further in a later post. Before looking specifically at the visualisations, it is worth remembering that in almost every case the women who married these sailors were very young. The graph below demonstrates this. Of the 73 women, only three were over the age of 30. The vast majority (64, or 90.9%) were aged between 17 and 25.

Age of U.S. Passport Applicants (Damian Shiels)

Age of Irish women who had married U.S. Naval personnel at the time of their U.S. Passport Applicants (Damian Shiels)

In order to visualise the data we have turned to Palladio, a web-based platform developed by the Humanities & Design Research Lab at the Center for Spatial and Textual Analysis, Stanford University. Palladio was developed for the visualisation of complex, multi-dimensional data. It is free to use– all that is required is having the information in tabular format to upload and the time to prepare it appropriately. For that purpose we decided to spatially explore two elements of the data– where the Irish women who married these U.S. Naval personnel were born, and where they intended to travel to in the United States.

The different locations where Irish women who married U.S. Naval personnel as a result of the First World War were born (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

The different locations where Irish women who married U.S. Naval personnel as a result of the First World War were born- Click image to enlarge (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

The first map above presents each of the locations where Irish women who married U.S. Naval personnel were born. One of the most significant aspects of this is that women from every location where the Americans were based during the war are represented, including Queenstown (Cobh), Aghada, Passage West, Haulbowline, Bantry Bay, Wexford, Donegal and Dublin. The next map indicates the relative concentrations of women in these birthplaces, with 1 being the lowest and 18 the highest.

The relative concentrations of women who married U.S. Naval personnel by birthplace (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

The relative concentrations of women who married U.S. Naval personnel by birthplace- Click image to enlarge (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

Unsurprisingly Dublin offers one of the main concentrations, but by far and away the most heavily represented area is Co. Cork, a result of the fact that the bulk of U.S. servicemen were based there during the war, particularly around Cork Harbour. Of the 73 women identified, 50 were from Co. Cork. That concentration warrants a closer look.

The relative concentrations

The relative concentrations of women who married U.S. Naval personnel by birthplace, focus on Co. Cork- Click image to enlarge (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

A focus on Co. Cork shows that Cork City dominates with 18, followed by Queenstown (Cobh) with 13 and then Youghal with 4. The majority of the other Cork women came from the east of the county, with outliers in locations such as Bantry, likely associated with the U.S. Naval presence in Bantry Bay and on Whiddy Island.

Each of these Irish women took had decided not only to the marry an American, but also to leave all they had known behind for the United States. Though there is some evidence to suggest that not all of them would ultimately travel across the Atlantic, the majority of them undoubtedly did. We turn now to the other side of the Atlantic, to see where they hoped to end up.

USA location only

The locations in the United States where the Irish women intended to make their initial home following their departure- Click image to enlarge (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

As is evident in the visualisation above, these Irish women were spread across the length and breadth of the United States, particularly in the east and mid-west. The map below illustrates their relative concentrations.

concentration

The locations of densest concentration for the Irish wives of U.S. Naval personnel departing for the United States- Click image to enlarge (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

There is a notable concentration on the east coast, particularly in New York and in states such as Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, while some went initially to centres of the U.S. Navy where their husbands were based.

The final sets of visualisations are perhaps the most poignant. In them the data of the Irish women’s birthplaces and intended destinations are linked, showing how far from home they were travelling. They were journeying into the unknown, to meet up with husbands with whom they had at best spent only a few months, and often to locations where it is doubtful they knew a soul. There is also little doubt that for some, their decision to marry an American serviceman had met with the disapproval of, and potential estrangement from, their family in Ireland, another aspect we will return to in a later post.

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The intended destinations of the Irish women relative to their place of birth in Ireland- Click image to enlarge (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

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The intended destinations of the Irish women relative to their place of birth in Ireland, with relative concentration illustrated- Click image to enlarge (Damian Shiels/Palladio)

We will continue to analyse the data we retrieved relating to these Irish women in future posts. To view the data upon which these visualisations were based, you can view the original post here.

References

Palladio at Stanford

Categories: 20th Century | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Video: Aghada’s World War One U.S. Naval Air Station

As part of our ongoing U.S. Military in Cork Centenary Projecton Saturday we filmed a short video taking a look at the archaeology and history of the United States Naval Air Station in Aghada, Co. Cork. The video also touches on the economic and social impact of the base. You can watch the video below, we hope you enjoy it!

 

Categories: 20th Century, World War One | Tags: , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

100 of Ireland’s World War One American Women in Pictures: Part 1– The Database

Over recent months the Midleton Archaeology & Heritage Project has been engaged in its largest undertaking to date. By systematically assessing United States passport applications from the end of World War One, we have been exploring some of the stories of Irish women who married U.S. servicemen based in Ireland during the conflict. In Part 1 of a series of posts, which will include both analytical discussion and mapping, we present our initial all-island database, which provides biographical details– and photographs– of almost 100 Irish women who were married to American servicemen, the vast bulk of them in Ireland. Passport Women Cover

2017 will mark the 100th anniversary of the arrival of American troops in Ireland to partake in World War One. The American military presence here is one of the least familiar stories from the period. Of the thousands who arrived, the majority were naval servicemen. The greater number were attached to the U.S. vessels operating out of Cork Harbour, but many were also stationed around the country, such as those at the United States Naval Air Service bases in Cork, Wexford, Dublin and Lough Foyle. The arrival of large numbers of foreign men from across the Atlantic had a major impact on the social environments where they were quartered. Many romances blossomed with local women, a form of interaction that was not always welcomed by the local community, most notably in Cork. For some, either out of love or necessity, marriage followed. Trying to ascertain detail on some of these Irish women’s individual stories is challenging. In an attempt to do so, we have trawled through thousands of  passport applications to identify those made by Irish women who had married American servicemen and were seeking to enter the United States.

In order to compile the database below, we carried out a detailed programme of analysis based around the United States passport applications held in the National Archives and Record Administration (NARA) in Washington, D.C. Using the http://www.ancestry.com U.S. passport application database as a starting point, we sought to identify all passports relating to Irish-born women born between 1885 and 1895 who made applications in 1917, 1918 and 1919. These included women recorded in passport sets such as the Passport Applications, January 2, 1906- March 31, 1925; Emergency Passport Applications, Argentina thru Venezuela, 1906-1925; and Applications of Wives of Members of the AEF in Europe. In addition we also searched for Irish women in Applications of Wives of Members of the AEF in Europe for 1920 and 1921. Of the thousands of results, we then examined the original passport scans of each, in order to extract those women with a direct connection to an American serviceman. Where we identified a relevant passport, we transcribed the information into a narrative paragraph, and saved an image of the passport photograph. In order to reveal the maiden names of as many of the Irish women as we could, we cross-referenced the majority with the Irish Marriages database on http://www.findmypast.ie, and also examined a number of World War One related records of U.S. military personnel. The results of this extensive project can be explored in the database of names below.

The women we identified have been separated into three categories, and within each they are divided by county of origin. The first two are those for the wives of U.S. Naval personnel and the wives of U.S. Army personnel, the bulk of which are applications made through consuls in Ireland and Britain by Irish women who had never been outside of Ireland but were seeking to travel to America. A small number also relate to Irish women who were married to an Irish emigrant who had entered United States service. A third category includes those Irish women in America who were seeking to perform service or to reside in France during the conflict (the latter is undoubtedly far from comprehensive). In the majority of instances only those passports where there was a confirmed military connection were included. Though it is likely we have identified many (if not most) of the applications of Irish women who married U.S. servicemen in Ireland or Britain during the conflict, there are undoubtedly more out there.

This post is the first in a series relating to these women, and is intended to present our initial database of individuals and something of their details. We will be seeking to map this information, and follow-on posts will examine what we can learn from them– just as some appear to be heartwarming stories of love, others hint at sadness and separation. We are eager to tell something of their stories, and to imagine what it must have been like for so many of them to leave all they knew behind as they set off for new lives across the Atlantic. Surely though the most compelling aspect of the compilation is the images of the women themselves. In these often haunting pictures we see a range not only of expressions and emotions, but also of hairstyles, fashion-sense and photographic settings. Some of the shots include their children, while one even includes the family dog. We hope you enjoy the information below, and we are eager to hear from readers who may be able add names or detail to this list.

The Wives of United States Navy by County

Co. Cork

Kathleen Yeager, 23, Greenmount, Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 7th July 1919.

Kathleen Dorney was born in Greenmount on 5th October 1895 to Thomas Dorney of Crosshaven and Kathleen (Crowley) Dorney of “Kilbuthry” (Kilbarry?), Co. Cork. She had lived in Cork all her life. On 11th February 1919 she had married Jasper Weeks Yeager, a native of Mississippi and a Chief Commissary Steward in the U.S. Navy at the Church of St. Finbar’s West in Cork. He had entered the service in St. Louis, Missouri on 5th April 1913. At the time of her application Jasper was living at 23 Upper Mount Street in Dublin, and was attached the U.S. depot on Sir John Rogerson’s Quay in the city. On emigration Kathleen intended to make her home at No. 1 West 129th Street in New York; she intended to sail on the SS Harrisburg on 10th July 1919.

Kathleen Yeager (NARA)

Kathleen Yeager (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Butcher, 22, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in U.S. Navy. Plymouth Consulate. Passport issued 3rd May 1920.

Margaret Reynolds was born in Queenstown on 8th March 1898 to William Reynolds of Kinsale and Minnie (Power) Reynolds of Queenstown. On 12th March 1919 in Plymouth she married Marion Butcher, a native of Boston, Massachusetts, who was a Coxswain in the U.S.N.R.F. Margaret had moved to Plymouth when a baby in 1898, living there ever since. Marion had served in the Navy from 17th July 1917 to 14th July 1919. His discharge was apparently due to his “inability to support wife on naval pay.” At the time of Margaret’s application Marion was living at 151 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston, where she hoped to join him, sailing in May.

Margaret Butcher (NARA)

Margaret Butcher (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Mary Morrison, 22, Cork, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 7th June 1918.

Elizabeth Mary Jones had been born in Cork on 9th October 1895. On 16th February 1918 she had married Stephen C. Morrison in Cork; he was an Electrician First Class in the U.S. Navy. Stephen had been born in Lenoir, Caldwell County, North Carolina. At the time of her application on 6th March 1918 she was “temporarily sojourning” at 3 Victoria Street on Military Road, and her husband had been transferred back to the United States. Elizabeth had never been to America, and her new home was to be in Eufola, North Carolina.

Elizabeth Mary Morrison (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Mary Morrison (NARA/Ancestry)

Kathleen Quinn, 19, Cork, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 26th July 1918.

Kathleen Hoskins was born in Cork on 7th March 1899. On 31st December 1917 she had married Chief Boatswain’s Mate James H. Quinn at the Church of S. S. Mary and Anne in Shandon, Cork. He had been born in Philadelphia and was serving in the U.S. Navy. Kathleen had never been to America before. She was going to live at 2905 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, and at the time of her application on 24th July 1918 was “temporarily sojourning” at 9 De Vesci Place, Monkstown, Co. Cork.

Kathleen Quinn (NARA/Ancestry)

Kathleen Quinn (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Daisy Atkins, 19, Queenstown (Cobh), Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 30th April 1919.

Margaret Daisy Brierly was born in Queenstown on 14th August 1899. In the last quarter of 1918 she married Harold Atkins of Binnewater, New York while he was serving with the U.S. Navy; Harold was stationed in the U.S. Training Barracks in Passage. Margaret, who had never been outside of Ireland before, planned to live with her husband at 29 Staple Street in Kingston, New York.

Margaret Daisy Atkins (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Daisy Atkins (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Ellen Balschi, 34, Cork City, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 30th May 1919.

Mary Ellen O’Sullivan was born in Cork City on 13th July 1885. She had lived in Ireland all her life, and never been to the United States. She had married Thomas A. Balschi of Mount Carmel in Pennsylvania in the last quarter of 1917 while he was serving in the U.S. Navy. The couple planned to make their home in Catawissa, Pennsylvania.

Mary Ellen Balschi (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Ellen Balschi (NARA/Ancestry)

Letitia Becker, 22, Youghal, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 4th June 1919.

Letitia Collins was born in Youghal on 21st July 1896, and had lived in Ireland all her life and had never been to the United States. Letitia married Joseph Leonard Becker, a member of the U.S. Navy. The date of their marriage is not given, though Letitia’s application to become an American citizen had been approved on 8th October 1918 and the Civil Registration index suggests they had married in the first three months of 1918. The couple’s son John Arthur was born in Youghal on 14th January 1919. The young family planned to live at 5 Ernst Street in Rochester, New York. The oath taken to confirm Letitia’s identity was taken by Ann Bingham, also from Youghal, who had known Letitia since childhood; Ann had also married a U.S. sailor.

Letitia Becker (NARA/Ancestry)

Letitia Becker (NARA/Ancestry)

Ann Bingham, 22, Youghal, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 2nd June 1919.

Ann Cronin was born in Youghal on 4th September 1896. She had known Letitia Becker (above) for 20 years. She had lived in Ireland all her life and ever been to the United States. Ann had married U.S. Navy man Edward Ross Bingham, and the couple planned to make their home at 715 East Seminary Street in Danville, Illinois. Although the date of their marriage is not provided, Ann’s application to become an American citizen had been approved on 8th July 1918, and the Civil Registration index suggests they had married in the first three months of 1918. Their son John Patrick was born in Youghal on 24th December 1918. Letitia Becker took the oath to confirm Ann’s identity on the application.

Ann Bingham (NARA/Ancestry)

Ann Bingham (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Esther Blanton, 21, Cork City, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 5th August 1919.

Mary was born in Cork on 23rd February 1898. Her maiden name was Blackshields; her father George was originally from Colchester in England, while her mother Catherine (née Donovan) was from Bandon. Mary had lived in Ireland from 1898 to 1901, then in England until 1908, before returning to Ireland. Mary had never been to the United States, but was now going because of her marriage to Carpenter’s Mate 1st Class Marion J. Blanton of the U.S. Navy. Marion had enlisted in Charleston, South Carolina on 2nd December 1915, and was serving aboard the USS Panther. The couple had married in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown on 17th February 1918; their daughter Florence was born in the same town on 23rd December that year. The family planned to make their home in Charleston.

Mary Esther Blanston (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Esther Blanton (NARA/Ancestry)

Josephine Buckingham, 22, Queenstown, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 28th February 1919.

Josephine Donovan was born in Queenstown on 14th December 1896. She had never been to the United States, and had never been outside of Ireland. She married Elbert Ray Buckingham of the U.S. Navy in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown on an unspecified date in the last quarter of 1917. Elbert was a native of Pensacola, Florida, though the newlyweds intended to make their home at 506 Bedford Avenue in Brooklyn.

Josephine Buckingham (NARA/Ancestry)

Josephine Buckingham (NARA/Ancestry)

Gertrude Caruso, 18, Queenstown, Co. Cork, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 20th June 1919.

Gertrude Clifford was born in Queenstown on 19th September 1900. Her father George was from Cork City, while her mother Mary (née Brown) was from Queenstown. She had lived in Ireland all her life, and had never been to America. She met and married James Caruso of Higginsville, New York at St. Colman’s Cathedral on 11th March 1919. He was then serving as a Fireman 1st Class on the USS Corsair. She planned to make her home at 730 Lansing Street in Utica, New York. 

Gertrude Caruso (NARA/Ancestry)

Gertrude Caruso (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Clark, 19, Youghal, Co. Cork, Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Application submitted 19th March 1919.

Mary Josephine Dea was born in Youghal on 14th March 1900. She met and married Eugene Henry Clark from Floyd County, Iowa; according to the register of Irish Marriages their wedding took place in the first three months of 1918. Their daughter Mary Josephine Gene Clark was born in Cork on 21st October 1918. Mary’s application does not state if her husband was in the armed forces, but it did state that he was dead. The answer may lie in the U.S. Navy Casualty Reports. It records the fate of a Gunner’s First Mate Eugene Henry Clark on 7th October 1918:

U.S.S. SHAW

At about 6:45 a.m. while attempting to secure after bill board which was torn loose by the seas, the following man was washed overboard. An extremely heavy sea was running and was sweeping the deck and bridge:-

CLARK, Eugene Henry  Gunner’s Mate 1c

It would seem almost certain that this was Mary’s husband, given that the USS Shaw‘s home port was Queenstown. Mary stated that she had lived in Ireland all her life, and that she planned to live at 110 Linden Avenue in Waterloo, Iowa.

Mary Josephine Clark (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Clark (NARA/Ancestry)

Catherine Friend, 20, Cork City, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 28th February 1919.

Catherine McCarthy was born in Margaret Street, Cork City on 30th October 1898. She had lived in Ireland all her life, and had never been in the United States. She married George F. Friend of New York, who was then serving in the U.S. Navy in the last quarter of 1917. They planned to make their home at 52 Morris Street in New Jersey.

Catherine Friend (NARA/Ancestry)

Catherine Friend (NARA/Ancestry)

Norah Fry, 22, Blackrock, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 30th April 1919.

Norah Mehegan was born in Blackrock on 27th January 1897. She had never been to the United States, and had lived in Ireland all her life. She married American Ralph Henry Fry who was serving in the U.S. Navy in the last quarter of 1918. Norah planned to make her home at 287 East 136th Street in New York.

Norah Fry (NARA/Ancestry)

Norah Fry (NARA/Ancestry)

Nellie Fuller, 21, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 17th June 1919.

Nellie Crowley was born in Cork on 8th March 1898. She had lived in Ireland all her life. She married U.S. Navy man Alton Howard Fuller of Boston, Massachusetts at the Roman Catholic Church in Monkstown, Co. Cork on 19th April 1919. Their new home was to be Livermore Falls in Maine.

Nellie Fuller (NARA/Ancestry)

Nellie Fuller (NARA/Ancestry)

Veronica Harris, 21, Castlemartyr, Co. Cork. Husband in U.S. Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 7th August 1919.

Veronica Dillon was born in Castlemartyr on 3rd February 1898 to Thomas Dillon (a native of Monaghan) and Norah Dillon (née Ryan, from Tipperary). Veronica, who had never been in the United States, married New Yorker Francis Cody Harris in Aghada, Co. Cork on 8th April 1918. Francis was then serving as a Chief Electrician aboard the Receiving Ship New York. He had entered the service in San Francisco in 1906. By the time of her application Francis was back in the United States; Veronica hoped to join her husband in Brooklyn via the SS Plattsburg on 15th August 1919.

Veronica Harris (NARA/Ancestry)

Veronica Harris (NARA/Ancestry)

Kathleen Hawk, 22, Passage West, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 21st July 1919.

Kathleen Collins was born in Passage West on 18th July 1896 to James Collins and Mary (Harding) Collins, both also of Passage West. In the Church of St. Marys, Passage West on 16th January 1919 she married Ray Clifton Hawk, a Chief Boatswain’s Mate aboard the USS Imperator. Ray had been in the service since 1910. On arrival in the United States she intended to make her home at 1021 West Jacks St., St. Kokomo, Indiana.

Kathleen Hawk (NARA/Ancestry)

Kathleen Hawk (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Kowalski, 20, Midleton. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport Issued 3rd September 1919

Margaret had been born in Midleton on 12th September 1899 and had lived in Ireland “all my life” and had “never been in U.S.” She applied to the U.S. Consulate in Queenstown for a passport, as she had married Wenceslaus Kowalski of the United States Navy in Midleton on 15th March 1919. He was a native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin where he lived at 914 11th Avenue. By the time Margaret applied, Wenceslaus had been moved on to Liverpool.

Margaret Kowalski (Ancestry)

Margaret Kowalski (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Horn, 17, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 29th August 1919.

Mary Josephine Donovan was born in Queenstown on 23rd February 1902 to Eugene Donovan of Queenstown and Mary (Keating) Donovan of Cork. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. On 13th April 1919 she married Chief Quartermaster Irwin Robert Horn of the USS Corsair in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown. Irwin had been born in Reading, Pennsylvania on 4th May 1897. Her husband having already returned to America, Mary Josephine intended to join him there at 13 North 13th Street in Newark, New Jersey. She hoped to sail on the SS President Grant on 3rd September.

Mary Josephine Horn (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Horn (NARA/Ancestry)

Violet Mary Hynes, 20, Haulbowline, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 29th January 1919.

Violet Mary Irwin was born in Haulbowline on 13th December 1897. Her husband Thomas Nicholas Hynes had been born in St. John’s, Newfoundland in May 1895, and that November the family had emigrated to Summerville, Massachusetts. In 1918 he had joined the U.S. Navy at Boston and was assigned to the Naval Air Station in Aghada, Co. Cork. The couple were married in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown on 13th November 1918. Violet was making her temporary home at Lakeview, Carrignafoy in Queenstown while she awaited news on her application, which was complicated by the fact that her husband was not a naturalized U.S. citizen.

Violet Mary Hynes (NARA/Ancestry)

Violet Mary Hynes (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Lapenta, 24, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 7th August 1919.

Margaret Ring was born in Cork on 7th April 1895. On 13th April 1919 she married Anthony Elia Lapenta (Carmine Antonio Lapenta) of the U.S. Navy at St. Mary’s of Mount Carmel in Harwich, Essex, England. Anthony had been born in New York on 1st March 1890. Margaret applied from Cork, and intended to live at 126 North Elliot Place in Brooklyn, having never been to the United States before.

Margaret Lapenta (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Lapenta (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Johns, 19, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 18th July 1919.

Elizabeth O’Regan was born in Cork on 10th November 1899. She had never been outside Ireland before. She married U.S. Navy man John Johns in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown on 19th February 1919. John had been born in Scot Haven, Westmoreland, Pennsylvania in 1893 and had spent his life in Homestead, Pennsylvania. The couple’s son John T. Johns was born in Cork on 24th November 1918. When Elizabeth went to the United States she planned to live in Boston.

Elizabeth Johns (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Johns (NARA/Ancestry)

Hannah Luckett, 23, Castlelyons, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 24th February 1919.

Hannah Noonan was born in Castlelyons on 3rd October 1895. She married Charles R. Luckett of the U.S. Navy at St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown on 6th April 1918. She had never been to the United States, and had lived in Ireland all her life. Hannah intended to make her home at 516 Fifth Street, S.E., Washington D.C.

Hannah Luckett (NARA/Ancestry)

Hannah Luckett (NARA/Ancestry)

Bridget Mary Mahony, 22, Midleton, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 9th May 1919.

Bridget Mary Lynch was born in Midleton on 7th May 1897 to Thomas Lynch and Mary (Geary) Lynch, both also of Midleton. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. On 1st January 1919 she married George Daniel Mahony in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown– he was a Cook aboard the USS Imperator. George had been born in the U.S. and had enlisted in 1915; Bridget intended to make her home with him in New York City.

Bridget Mary Mahony (Ancestry)

Bridget Mary Mahony (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Moore, 23, Youghal, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 31st May 1919.

Mary Josephine Doran was born in Youghal on 15th February 1896 to William Doran of Killeagh and Mary (Broderick) Doran of Youghal. She had never been to the United States and had lived in Ireland all her life. On 11th October 1917 she married William Thompson Moore, a Coxswain in the U.S. Navy at St. Colman’s Cathedral in Queenstown. He had entered service at Great Lakes on 11th February 1916 and at the time of Mary’s application was still in the Navy, at New York. Their son John William Moore was born in Queenstown on 14th January 1919. Mary hoped to sail with her son around 15th June 1919, and intended to make her home at 925 Chicago Avenue in Evanston, Illinois.

Mary Josephine Moore (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Moore (NARA/Ancestry)

Euphrosyne Posey, 26, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 23rd June 1919.

Euphrosyne Cain was born in Queenstown on 20th May 1893. In the middle of the 1918 she married William Alton Posey, a native of Shreveport, Louisiana and a member of the U.S. Navy. Euphrosyne had never been in the United States, and never been outside of Ireland. The couple planned to make their home in Birmingham, Alabama.

Euphrosyne Posey (NARA/Ancestry)

Euphrosyne Posey (NARA/Ancestry)

Alice Maud Pranis, 22, Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 2nd June 1919.

Alice Maud Pain was born in Cork on 12th July 1896. She married Joseph Pranis from Cleveland, Ohio, in Cork during the last quarter of 1917. Joseph, from Cleveland, Ohio, was serving in the U.S. Navy. Alice had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. On 17th October 1918 the couple celebrated the birth of their son Joseph Arthur Pranis in Cork. Cissie Pain, a relative of Alice who swore to her identification lived at 5 Langford Terrace in Cork.

Alice Maud Pranis (NARA/Ancestry)

Alice Maud Pranis (NARA/Ancestry)

Hanora Riffle, 22, Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 2nd June 1919.

Hanora Pearson was born in Cork on 29th November 1897. She married James Mathule Riffle of the United States Navy in Cork during the last quarter of 1918. Hanora had spent during her life in Ireland, India, Malta and England during her life, as her father was in the British Army. She had never been to the United States.

Hanora Riffle (NARA/Ancestry)

Hanora Riffle (NARA/Ancestry)

Helena Swann, 21, Carrigtwohill, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 25th August 1919.

Helena Cotter was born in Carrigtwohill on 1st January 1898 to Batholomew Cotter and Elizabeth (O’Brien) Cotter, both also of Carrigtwohill. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. On 22nd July 1918 she had married James Swann in the Church of St. Aloysius, Carrigtwohill, a native of Baltimore, Maryland and a 1st Class Baker aboard USS Melville. James had entered the service around 1914, was discharged in 1918, and at the time of Helena’s application was serving in the Mercantile Marine. She hoped to join her husband at 4 South Street in New York City, sailing on 5th September.

Helena Swann (NARA/Ancestry)

Helena Swann (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Thomas, 21, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 4th April 1919.

Mary Murphy was born in Cork on 16th January 1897. On 10th February 1918 she married Robert Lee Thomas, a native of Manhattan, Kansas, in the Roman Catholic Church of S.S. Mary & Anne in Shandon, Cork City. Mary had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. The couple’s daughter Elsa Irene was born in Cork on 27th December 1918.

Mary Thomas (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Thomas (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Thompson, 19, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 5th June 1919.

Margaret was born in Cork on 14th July 1900. She married Forest Thompson, a native of Gainesville, Missouri in 1918. Forest was then serving in the U.S. Navy. Margaret had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. At the time of her application Forest was at Knottyash Camp in Liverpool. She intended her home to be Gainesville, Missouri R.F.D.#2 following emigration.

Margaret Thompson (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Thompson (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Turner, 21, Kilworth, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 18th June 1919.

Mary O’Keefe was born in Kilworth on 26th February 1897. She had lived in Ireland all her life and had never been to the United States. In St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown on 20th October 1917 she had married Edward Chester Turner, a Fireman in the U.S. Navy and native of Meyers, California. Mary did not know where Edward had enlisted, and at the time of her application he had been discharged and was back in America. Mary hoped to make her home with him at 525 Main Street in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. She intended to sail on 8th July 1919 aboard the SS Plattsburg. 

Mary Turner (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Turner (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Turner, 23, Kilworth, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 19th October 1920 (See Above)

Mary O’Keeffe again applied for the passport, an indication that just because Irish women received one they did not always travel. In her second application she said her husband was discharged “recently in the U.S. I do not know when or where” and when asked her husband was she said “I do not know as I have not heard from him for twelve months.” Mary now intended to make her home at 130 Tildon Street, Lowell, Massachusetts and hoped to sail on 4th November 1920 on the SS Baltic. 

Mary Turner (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Turner (NARA/Ancestry)

Hannah Coakley Vassar, 33, Ballywilliam, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 4th April 1919.

Hannah Coakley was born in Ballywilliam on 31st December 1885. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. She married Addison Vassar, a native of Napoleon, Indiana and member of the U.S. Navy in Cork during the first quarter of 1918. Their son John Addison was born in Ballywilliam on 5th October 1918. Hannah intended to make her home at 124 West 13th Street in Bayonne, New Jersey.

Hannah Coakley Vassar (NARA/Ancestry)

Hannah Coakley Vassar (NARA/Ancestry)

Bridget Mary Wallace, 21, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 1st July 1919.

Bridget Mary Carroll was born in Queenstown on 6th May 1898 to Richard Carroll of Co. Kerry and Bridget (Sheedy) Carroll of Castle Oliver, Co. Limerick. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. On 22nd April 1919 she married Kenneth Rueben Wallace in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown. Kenneth was a Lieutenant Commander in the U.S. Navy, having entered the service in Annapolis in 1909. Following her emigration she planned to make her home at 7000 Eggleston Avenue in Chicago, Illinois.

Bridget Mary Wallace (NARA/Ancestry)

Bridget Mary Wallace (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Wells, 21, Aghada, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 21st January 1919.

Margaret Smyth was born in Aghada on 25th March 1897. She married Roy Augustus Wells, a native of Huron, South Dakota in the Roman Catholic Church in Aghada on 3rd November 1918. He was a Chief Quartermaster based at the U.S. Naval Air Station in Aghada. Margaret had never been to the United States before and had lived in Ireland all her life. She intended to make her home at R.R.#3, Hudson, Michigan.

Margaret Wells (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Wells (NARA/Ancestry)

Norah White, 20, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 10th April 1919.

Norah Hennessy was born in Cork on 17th March 1899. She had lived in Ireland all her life. She married Charles Samuel White, a native of Fairhaven, Massachusetts and member of the U.S. Navy in Cork in the second quarter of 1918. Norah intended to make her home at 61 Alvoid Avenue, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Norah White (NARA/Ancestry)

Norah White (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Kate Wilder, 22, Donoughmore, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 16th April 1919. 

Mary Kate Magill was born in Donoughmore on 8th May 1896. She had lived in Ireland all her life. On 22nd December 1918 she married Edwin Vernon Wilder, a native of Kansas and member of the U.S. Navy, in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown. Edwin, who had been born in Osborne on 13th May 1889, was a Junior Grade Lieutenant at U.S.N.T. Barracks Base 6. Mary Kate planned to live in Osborne, Kansas.

Mary Kate Wilder (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Kate Wilder (NARA/Ancestry)

Madge Weed, 25, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 17th March 1919.

Madge Linehan was born in Cork on 25th September 1894 to Thomas and Bridget Linehan of Cork. She had never been in the United States. She married Harry Alonzo Weed of Erie, Pennsylvania on 29th September 1917 in St. Patrick’s Church, Cork. He was then serving as a water-tender aboard USS Allen, having joined the service in 1899. At the time of Madge’s application Harry was back in New York. In the United States she intended to make her home on Route #5 in Waterford, Pennsylvania, and hoped to sail on 21st March 1919.

Madge Weed (NARA/Ancestry)

Madge Weed (NARA/Ancestry)

Ellen Woodson, 19, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 25th February 1919.

Ellen Ring was born in Cork on 4th January 1900. She married Russell Micklem Woodson, a native of Rockfish, Nelson County, Virginia in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown on 2nd June 1918, while Russell was serving in the U.S. Navy. Ellen had lived in Ireland all her life. Mary Cooney who provided her identification in Queenstown, had known her for only eight months.

Ellen Woodson (NARA/Ancestry)

Ellen Woodson (NARA/Ancestry)

Nellie Anderson, 23, Queenstown. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 2nd December 1920.

Nellie Burns was born in Queenstown in March 1897 to John Burns of Cork City and Hannah Burns of Queenstown. She married Charles D. Anderson, of Green County, Pennsylvania on 9th February 1918 in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown. At the time Charles was serving as a Seaman in the U.S. Navy. He initially enlisted in August 1916, was discharged in August 1920 and had since rejoined. Charles had been born on 21st February 1896. The couple’s son Patrick was born in Queenstown a month after they were married, on 17th March 1918. Nellie had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. As part of her application Nellie produced a letter from her husband showing that he wished her to join him in America. At the time of her application her husband was in Mexico. Upon emigration Nellie intended to live at 115 Murton Avenue in Mountville, West Virginia. She hoped to sail on the SS Baltic on 9th December 1920.

Nellie Anderson (NARA/Ancestry)

Nellie Anderson (NARA/Ancestry)

Johanna Dealy, 19, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 30th September 1920.

Johanna Twomey was born in Cork on 28th January 1901 to Patrick and Mary Frances Twomey of Cork. On 11th March 1918 she married Richard Edgar Dealy, of Boston, Massachusetts at the Church of S.S. Peter and Paul in Cork. Richard was then a Chief Machinist in the U.S. Navy, and he had been born on 7th April 1892. Their daughter Ellen was born in Cork on 18th February 1919. At the time of Johanna’s application Richard was still in the Navy, and was at Chelsea Street in Charlestown, Massachusetts. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. Johanna hoped to join her husband by sailing on 8th August from Antwerp.

Johanna Dealy (NARA/Ancestry)

Johanna Dealy (NARA/Ancestry)

Annie Wilkinson, 18, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 5th August 1920.

Annie Burke was born in Queenstown on 3rd July 1902 to John and Mary Ellen Burke of the town. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. On 5th April 1919 she married Ira Martin Wilkinson of Chillicothe, Ohio, in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown. Ira was a U.S. Navy Cook, and was at the time of Annie’s application in the Navy Yard in Philadelphia. He had been born on 27th August 1894. Following her emigration Annie intended to live at 58 Warren Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts.

Annie Wilkinson (NARA/Ancestry)

Annie Wilkinson (NARA/Ancestry)

Katherine Odgers, 27, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 7th January 1921.

Katherine Hegarty was born in Queenstown on 26th April 1893 to Patrick and Mary Hegarty both of the town. On 29th December 1918 she married Harry Morton Odgers, a Chief Yeoman in the U.S. Navy in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown. Katherine had lived in Ireland until 1916, before spending the following two years in England and returning to Ireland in 1918. She spent another five months in England between June and December 1920. At the time of her application Harry was on a receiving ship in New York. She didn’t know what her permanent address in the United States would be, but hoped to sail on 9th January 1921 aboard the SS St Mehiel.

Katherine Odgers (NARA/Ancestry)

Katherine Odgers (NARA/Ancestry)

Annie Frances Emery, 19, Passage West, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 26th May 1919.

Annie Frances Kennedy was born in Passage West on 8th August 1898. Her father Edward and Mary were also both Irish. Annie had lived in Ireland all her life, and had never been to the United States. On 8th May 1919 Annie married Eugene J. Emery in the Church of St. Mary in Passage West. Eugene was a Gunner in the U.S. Navy, and had enlisted in San Francisco, California in September 1903. At the time of her application, Eugene was in the Knotty Ash Rest Camp in Liverpool. Annie hoped to travel aboard the SS Plattsburg on 2nd June, with the intention of living in 238 Monteray Avenue in Ontario, California.

Annie Frances Emery (NARA/Ancestry)

Annie Frances Emery (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Janke, 21, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 23rd June 1919.

Elizabeth Hawkins was born in Queenstown on 24th August 1897 to William Hawkins and Annie (O’Halloran) Hawkins, both natives of the town. She had never been to the United States, but had lived in Plymouth, England from September 1909 to November 1914. Elizabeth married Seaman William Edward Janke on 20th November 1918 in St. Colman’s Cathedral, Queenstown. William had entered the U.S. service some eight years previously. Elizabeth would make her home with him at 3518 Riverside Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. She hoped to sail on the SS Plattsburg on 3rd July 1919.

Elizabeth Janke (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Janke (NARA/Ancestry)

Phillis Audrey Tarbutton, 19, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 9th August 1919.

Phillis Audrey Scogings was born in Queenstown on 29th November 1899 to Thomas William Scogings of Queenstown and Mary Elizabeth Scogings of Liverpool. She had lived in Ireland, England and Wales from her birth to 1919, and had never been to the United States. She had married William Edward Tarbutton, a native of Crumpton, Maryland on 12th July 1919 in Queenstown. William a Junior Grade Lieutenant aboard USS Greene, where he was still serving at the time of Phillis’s application. Phillis was staying at Rhianfa in Bull Bay, Anglesey, Wales when she applied. She hoped to stay in the Biltmore Hotel in New York after her emigration, intended to leave on the SS Plattsburg on 15th August 1919.

Phillis Audrey Tarbutton (NARA/Ancestry)

Phillis Audrey Tarbutton (NARA/Ancestry)

Bridie Comerford, 19, Bantry, Co. Cork. Husband in U.S. Navy. London Consulate. Passport issued 29th May 1919.

Bridie Sullivan was born in Bantry on 3rd June 1900. Her father Donald and mother Margaret were both also Irish. Bridie entered into a relationship with Walter Earl Comerford, a Chief Stoker aboard the USS Bushnell. She was already a number of months pregnant when they married in Forest Hill, London in December 1918; their son Robert was born in London on 20th March 1919. Bridie had never been to the United States before. At the time of her application Walter was already back in America, at Norfolk, Virginia. It was there that Bridie intended to make her home, at 735 West 35th Street. She hoped to sail on the SS Plattsburg on 2nd June 1919.

Bridie Comerford (NARA/Ancestry)

Bridie Comerford (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Sullivan Roberson, 20, Bantry, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. London Consulate. Passport issued 11th November 1919.

Margaret Sullivan was born in Bantry on 14th July 1899 to Daniel Francis Sullivan of Bantry and Margaret Sullivan of Schull. She had never been to the United States. On 2nd August 1919 she married Robert Fulton Roberson, a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Robert was a Junior Grade Lieutenant in the United States Navy. A few months before their marriage they had celebrated the birth of a son, Dannie, who was born in Liverpool on 9th April 1919. Margaret and her son intended to make their home at 3155 Broadway in New York following emigration.

Margaret Sullivan Roberson (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Sullivan Roberson (NARA/Ancestry)

Nora C. Shoen, 20, Queenstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Navy. London Consulate. Passport issued 28th May 1919.

Nora Coughlan was born in Queenstown on 4th August 1888 to John and Kate Coughlan. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. Nora married Zina Ray Shoen in Queenstown on 6th August 1918. At the time of Nora’s application Zina was in New York. She hoped to join him at 78 North Main Street, Messene, New York via the SS Harrisburg, sailing on 8th June 1919. Nora later sought a passport to return to Ireland which was granted on 4th April 1921. She was living in Norfolk, Virginia at the time, and sought to come back to Europe citing “ill health.” She hoped to leave from New York on the same date as her application.

Nora C Shoen (NARA/Ancestry)

Nora C Shoen (NARA/Ancestry)

Marguerite Joyce Ginns, 19, Cork City. Husband in United States Navy. Southampton Consulate. Passport issued 2nd June 1919.

Marguerite Joyce Callan was born in Cork on 13th November 1899 to Daniel and Mary Callan, both of that city. Marguerite married Michael J. Ginns of Pennsylvania in Queenstown on 12th December 1917, while he was a First Class Machinist on the USS Shaw. She had never been to the United States before. At the time of her application Michael was already on his way back to America. Marguerite, who at the time was living at 79 Malins Road in Southampton, hoped to sail aboard the SS Louisville on 15th June 1919 in order to join him in her new home at Roseville, California.

Joyce Ginns (NARA/Ancestry)

Joyce Ginns (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Donegal

Margaret Smith, 22, Iskaheen, Co. Donegal. Husband in United States Navy. Londonderry Consulate. Passport issued 14th October 1919.

Margaret Gallagher was born in Iskaheen on 18th January 1897 to James Gallagher of Killdrum, Co. Donegal and Rose Ann Mullan of Iskaheen. She had lived in Ireland all her life and never been to the United States. On 25th November 1918 she married Benjamin James Smith at the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Eugene in Londonderry.  A native of St. Louis, Missouri, Benjamin was then serving as an Ordinary Seaman in the United States Navy, and was a member of the United States Naval Air Station based on Lough Foyle. He had enlisted in St. Louis on 25th May 1917.On the 28th August 1919 the couple’s first child, Rose Ann, was born. At the time of Margaret’s application had been discharged and was living at 2555 Maiden Lane Street in St. Louis, where Margaret hoped to join him.

Margaret Smith (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Smith (NARA/Ancestry)

Sarah Christina Stephens, 21, Castlecar, Moville, Co. Donegal. Husband in United States Navy. Londonderry Consulate. Passport issued 14th October 1919.

Sarah Christina McSheffrey was born in Castlecar on 27th March 1898 to James McSheffrey of Moville and Mary Doherty. She lad lived in Moville all her life and never been to the United States. On 25th December 1918 she had married Milton J. Stephens in the Roman Catholic Church of St. Columba in Drung, Co. Donegal. A native of St. Louis, Missouri, Milton was an Electrician 1st Class in the United States Navy, serving at the United States Naval Air Station base in Lough Foyle. He entered the service on 24th May 1917 in St. Louis, and was discharged on 7th August 1919. At the time of Sarah’s application Milton was back in St. Louis, where Sarah hoped to join him at 4036 Rabade? Avenue.

Sarah Christina Stephens (NARA/Ancestry)

Sarah Christina Stephens (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Gabis, 21, Shrove, Moville, Co. Donegal. Husband in United States Navy. Londonderry Consulate. Passport issued 20th January 1920.

Mary Josephine Richardson was born in Shrove on 6th July 1900 to Hugh Richardson of Londonderry and Marianne (Hegarty) Richardson of Shrove. She married Stephen Gabis of Schenectady, New York on 27th March 1919 in St. Columba’s Church, Long Tower, Londonderry. She had lived all her life in Ireland and never been to the United States. Stephen had served as a Seaman in the U.S. Navy from August 1917 to July 1919, had been based at the U.S. Naval Air Station in Lough Foyle, and was discharged on the cessation of hostilities. He was in Brooklyn, New York at the time of her application. Mary intended to join him there, at 77 Pacific Street in Brooklyn.

Mary Josephine Gabis (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Josephine Gabis (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Dublin

Lily Iris Sumner, 21, Dublin, Husband in United States Navy. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 16th October 1918.

Lily Iris Bleakley was born in Dublin on 15th September 1897. She married Blancharde M. Sumner, a native of California in St. Stephen’s Church, Dublin in 1918. He was then serving aboard the USS Ophir. She had never lived in America, and took the Oath of Allegiance on 11th September 1918.

Lily Iris Sumner (NARA/Ancestry)

Lily Iris Sumner (NARA/Ancestry)

Josephine E. Buchno, 27, Dublin, Husband in United States Navy. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 7th June 1919.

Josephine Cleary was born in Dublin on 1st July 1891. Her father James Cleary was also a Dublin native, while her mother Ellen (née Egan) was from Killarney, Co. Kerry. Josephine had never been outside Ireland before she met John Buchno, a native of Buffalo, New York. John was serving as a Boatswain’s Mate with the United States Naval Air Force at the United States Naval Air Shipping Station in Dublin. He had enlisted on 15th March 1917 in Buffalo. The couple married at St. Kevin’s Church in Dublin on 30th November 1918. When they arrived in America they planned to make their home at 15 Roebling Avenue in Buffalo.

Josephine Buchno (NARA/Ancestry)

Josephine Buchno (NARA/Ancestry)

Mabel Davis, 20, Dublin. Husband in United States Navy. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 11th July 1919.

Mabel Dowzard was born in Dublin on 8th April 1899. Her father Edward had also been born in Dublin, while her mother Mary A. Cotterill Dowzard was from Stockport in England. She had lived in Ireland all her life, and had never been to America. Mabel met Paul W. Davis from Kennebunk, Maine, a Pharmacist’s Mate in the United States Navy, and married him at the North Strand Church in Dublin on 8th January 1919. Paul had enlisted at Chelsea, Massachusetts on 2nd April 1917 and at the time of Mabel’s application was in Liverpool awaiting embarkation to the United States. The couple hoped to make their home at 199 Auburn Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Mabel Davis (NARA/Ancestry)

Mabel Davis (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Skelly, 29, Dublin. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 20th November 1918.

Mary was born in Dublin on 19th November 1889. She married James Skelly at St. Michan’s in Dublin on 10th November 1915. Mary had lived in Dublin from her birth until November 1915, since which date she had resided in Liverpool. By the time of her application on 18th November 1918 James was a member of the U.S. Navy, serving aboard USS Leviathan. He had been born in New York, and the couple intended to live at 473 West 21st Street. Mary, who had never been in America before, was to be accompanied by her daughter Kathleen who had been born in Liverpool on 24th April 1917.

Mary Skelly (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Skelly (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Ellen Reynolds, 22, Dublin. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 1st September 1919.

Mary Ellen O’Rourke was born in Dublin on 25th January 1897 to Andrew O’Rourke of Liverpool and Ellen O’Rourke of Dublin. She had lived in Dublin from her birth until 1917, when she moved to Liverpool. On 16th May 1919 she married Edward Reynolds, a native of Crystal, North Dakota and a seaman in the U.S. Navy. Edward had entered the service on 14th May 1918 in Grafton, North Dakota. When Mary Ellen applied Edward was staying at the Criterion Hotel in Liverpool. She hoped to make her home in Grafton, and intended to sail on the USS President Grant on 3rd September 1919.

Mary Ellen Reynolds (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Ellen Reynolds (NARA/Ancestry)

Kathleen T. Sowder, 18, Ballard? Co. Dublin. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 9th July 1919.

Kathleen Kennedy was born in Brighton?, Ireland on 25th September 1900 to Terence Kennedy of Ballard and Alice Kennedy of Brighton?, Ireland. She had lived in Ireland all her life, and had never been to the United States. She moved to Liverpool on 4th July 1919 and at the time of her application was residing at St. John’s Hotel in that city. On 16th October 1918 Kathleen had married Jerome B. Sowder in Chapelizod, Dublin. They would celebrate the birth of their daughter Kathleen P. in Dublin a little over five months later on 2nd March 1919. Jerome was then serving as a Machinist 1st Class on USS Harrisburg. A native of Dearborn, Missouri, he had enlisted on 26th July 1917 in Kansas City, Missouri. He was still in the Navy at the time of Kathleen’s application, and was residing at the Criterion Hotel in Liverpool. Kathleen intended to sail on the USS Harrisburg on 8th July 1919.

Kathleen T. Sowder (NARA/Ancestry)

Kathleen T. Sowder (NARA/Ancestry)

Bridgie W. Phillips, 22, Esker, Co. Dublin? Husband in United States Navy. London Consulate. Passport issued 11th August 1919.

Bridget Whyte was born in Esker on 30th January 1897 to Thomas and Mary Whyte. She married Harold O. Phillips, a Chief Machinist Mate in the U.S. Navy in Rathdown, Co. Dublin on 26th June 1919. She had never been in the United States and had lived in Ireland all her life. She hoped to sail on 15th August 1919 on the SS Plattsburg, and intended to make her home in Mankato, Kansas.

Bridgie W. Phillips (NARA/Ancestry)

Bridgie W. Phillips (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Kerry

Elizabeth Mary Glasky, 22, Tralee, Co. Kerry. Husband in U.S. Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 25th March 1919.

Elizabeth Mary Lyons was born in Tralee on 9th August 1896. Her husband John Francis Glasky had emigrated to the United States around 1890, where he had made his home in Steubenville, Ohio. The couple had married in the first three months of 1918 in Cork, where Glasky was serving as a U.S.  Naval Rating. Elizabeth was making her temporary home at 1 Kerry Hall Terrace, St. Mary’s Road in Cork while she waiting to hear on her application.

Elizabeth Mary Glasky (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Mary Glasky (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Kildare

Norah Henderson, 20, Kildare. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 16th January 1919.

Norah Jones was born in Kildare on 3rd November 1898. She had lived in Ireland all her life and had never been to the United States. She married John Walter Henderson of the U.S. Navy, a native of North Bend, Pennsylvania, in Cork during the first months of 1918. Their new home was to be Renovo, Pennsylvania.

Norah Henderson (NARA/Ancestry)

Norah Henderson (NARA/Ancestry)

Eileen Vokes-Mackey Richardson, 23, Kildare. Husband in United States Navy. London Consulate. Passport issued 6th December 1918.

Eileen was born on 27th January 1895. She had married William Augustus Richardson, a native of Johnson City, Tennessee and a Lieutenant-Commander in the U.S. Navy. Eileen had never been to the United States. She applied for her passport on 6th December 1918.

Eileen Vokes Mackey RIchardson (NARA/Ancestry)

Eileen Vokes Mackey RIchardson (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Limerick

Margaret Burton, 24, Glin, Co. Limerick, Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 30th June 1919.

Margaret Reidy was born in Killeaney, Glin on 15th April 1895. Her father Thomas Reidy was from Killeaney, while her mother Margaret was from Cloncowley in Drumlish, Co. Longford. Margaret had never been to the United States. It was while in Liverpool that Margaret met and married Harry Chambers Burton of Ohio, who had been born in 1888. Harry was a Chief Carpenter’s Mate in the U.S. Navy, and the two had married in Liverpool on 12th April 1919. While Margaret awaited a determination on her passport she was at the American Red Cross Hospital in Liverpool; Harry had gone back to the United States, and was at the B.17 U.S. Receiving Ship in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn. Margaret hoped to sail to America on 3rd July 1919 aboard the SS Plattsburg. There the couple hoped to make their home at 17 East South Street in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Margaret Burton (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Burton (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Mayo

Mary Florence Burck, 28, Westport. Husband in United States Navy? Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 25th March 1919.

Mary Florence Glynn was born in Westport, Co. Mayo on 26th September 1890. She had lived in Ireland all her life, but married New York native Frank Burck in Queenstown Church of Ireland church on 30th November 1918. Although it is not stated if Frank had a military role, it may well have been World War One that brought him to Cork. The couple intended to make their home at 226 Winthrop Street in Brooklyn.

Mary Florence Burck (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Florence Burck (NARA/Ancestry)

Catherine Weiss, 27, Castlebar, Co. Mayo. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 28th July 1919.

Catherine Kearney was born in Castlebar on 16th January 1892 to Peter and Norah Kearney, also of Castlebar. She lived in Castlebar until 1915, when she moved to Liverpool. On 26th July 1919 she married Otto Weiss, a native of Chicago, Illinois, in Liverpool. Otto was a 2nd Class Engineman aboard USS Louisville. At the time of her application Otto was staying at 13 Knowsley Road in Liverpool.

Catherine Weiss (NARA/Ancestry)

Catherine Weiss (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Roscommon

Elizabeth Kane, 30, Co. Roscommon. Husband in United States Navy. Belfast Consulate. Passport issued 12th August 1919.

Elizabeth Breen was born in Co. Roscommon on 24th February 1886 to Thomas Breen of Co. Wexford and Marie (Kearns) Breen of Co. Roscommon. Her husband Owen Kane was a native of Co. Louth and had emigrated to the U.S. from Liverpool around 1900, spending the next 18 years in Boston. He entered the U.S. Navy there around 1907, and the couple had been married in St. Alexander’s Church in Bootle, Liverpool, England on 20th July 1911. By the time of her application, Owen was a Chief Petty Officer serving in the engineroom of U.S. vessels. The couple had four children; Katharine and James were born in Boston on 4th April 1912 and 22nd June 1915 respectively, while Eileen and Leo were born in Omeath, Co. Louth on 28th April 1916 and 16th November 1918. Elizabeth had last arrived in Omeath (presumably to her in-laws home) from Boston on 5th November 1916. She intended to live at 7 Seaver Street in East Boston, and hoped to sail on the SS Plattsburg on 15th August 1919.

Elizabeth Kane (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Kane (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Tipperary

May Colkitt, 21, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 17th January 1919.

May English was born in Clonmel on 19th November 1896. At the age of two she had moved to Liverpool, where she remained afterwards. There she met and married Mathew Stanley Colkitt of Medford, New Jersey. He was then serving in the U.S. Navy aboard USS Davis. The England and Wales Marriage Index suggests the wedding took place between July and September 1918; as the couple’s daughter Margaret L. Colkitt was born in Liverpool on 22nd July 1918, May was pregnant during the ceremony. At the time of her application May was still in Liverpool, but Mathew was already at 131 South Lord Street, Philadelphia, where she hoped to join him. May had never been to the City of Brotherly Love before.

May Colkitt (NARA/Ancestry)

May Colkitt (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Waterford

Christina Heise, 17, Waterford City. Husband in United States Navy. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 29th May 1919.

Christina Collins was born in Waterford City on 2nd June 1901 to Michael Collins (from Dublin) and Nannie (Dolan) Collins from Waterford. Christina had never been to the United States, and never been outside of Ireland. On 19th March 1919 she married Chief Machinist’s Mate Wilner Frank Heise, a native of Washington D.C. in St. Colman’s Cathedral in Queenstown. Wilner had entered the service around 1915. In the United States, Christina intended to make her home at 523 Pacific Street in Brooklyn.

Christina Heise (NARA/Ancestry)

Christina Heise (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Jizmejian, 22, Piltown, Co. Waterford. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 18th November 1918.

Elizabeth had been born in Piltown on 10th May 1896. In 1912 she moved to Cardiff, and since 1914 had made her home in Liverpool– she had never been to America. Her husband Joseph Arthur Jizmejian had initially emigrated to the United States from Le Havre on the 11th November 1912, and has been naturalised in New York on 11th June 1918. The couple had married in Liverpool on 24th March 1918, Joseph being in the U.K. with the United States Navy. Their home address was to be 200 East 27th Street in that city.

Elizabeth Jizmejian (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Jizmejian (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Westmeath

Mary Anne Robb, 24, Mullingar, Co. Westmeath. Husband in United States Navy. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 6th June 1919.

Mary Anne Bennett was born in Mullingar on 27th December 1894 t0 James Bennett of Martinstown, Mullingar and Anne Bennett of Mullingar (Mary Anne’s mother had passed away by the time of her application). She had lived in Mullingar all her life and never been to the United States. On 22nd December 1918 she married George Francis Robb, a native of Brooklyn, in the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Mullingar. George was then a 1st Class Fireman serving in the U.S. Navy. He had entered the service in New York in March 1911. At the time of her application George was back in Newport, Rhode Island. Upon her emigration Mary Anne intended to make her home at 562 Grand Avenue in Brooklyn, and she hoped to sail on the USS Brooklyn on 15th June 1919.

Mary Anne Robb (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Anne Robb (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Wexford

Margaret Josephine Dion, 21, Wexford, Co. Wexford. Husband in United States Navy. Plymouth Consulate. Passport issued 6th August 1919.

Margaret Josephine Hogan was born on 25th March 1898 in Wexford. Her father Patrick was from Limerick, while her mother Margaret had been born in India. She had lived in Ireland and England all her life and had never been to the United States. She met and married 1st Class Storekeeper Chester Dion at St. Michael & St. Joseph Roman Catholic Church in Plymouth on 30th November 1918. It was noted that Chester had not served in the Plymouth base. He was from Escanaba, Michigan, and had entered the service around 1912. At the time of Margaret’s application Chester was serving aboard USS Parker at New York. The couple intended to make their home at 827 Kellogg Street, Greenbay, Wisconsin.

Margaret Josephine Dion (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret Josephine Dion (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Wicklow

Catherine (Kattie) McKenna, 19, Shillelagh, Co. Wicklow. Husband in United States Navy. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 28th July 1919.

Catherine Byrne was born in Shillelagh on 15th November 1899 to Simon Byrne and Annie Fallon (both of Hacketstown, Co. Carlow). Catherine was known as Kattie; she had made her home in Shillelagh until 1917, after which she moved to Dublin. Her husband Patrick McKenna had also been born in Ireland, emigrating to America from Queenstown around 1909, and living the next ten years in Philadelphia. He became a naturalised U.S. citizen in San Francisco in 1915. The couple had married at the Church of the Three Patrons, Rathgar, Dublin on 15th June 1919, while Patrick was serving as a 2nd Class Fireman on USS Harrisburg. 

Catherine McKenna (NARA/Ancestry)

Catherine McKenna (NARA/Ancestry)

The Wives of United States Army by County

Co. Clare

Dela Culligan, 26, Kilrush, Co. Clare. Husband in United States Army. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 28th July 1919.

Dela Talty was born in Kilrush on 8th February 1893. Her father Michael and mother Margaret (née O’Dea) were also both from Kilrush. She appears to have been in the United States prior to the war, saying she returned to Kilrush in November 1914. She was married to James Culligan Jr. of Philadelphia at St. Senan’s Church in Kilrush on 7th May 1919. At the time of her application James was serving as a Corporal in the American Regulating Station APO #927 in the Moselle Yards at Coblenz, Germany, having entered the service in New York. He was due to return to America and was being sent to Brest for embarkation. Dela intended to live at 500 West 165th Street in New York, and hoped to travel on the SS Harrisburg departing on 29th July 1919.

Dela Culligan (NARA/Ancestry)

Dela Culligan (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Cork

Rosina Billing Junghans, 21, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Army. London Consulate. Passport issued 6th June 1919.

Rosina Victoria Billing was born in Co. Cork on 4th July 1897 to Charles Billing of London and Rosina Billing of Winchester. She had lived in Britain and Ireland all her life. On 12th February 1919 she married Engineer Sergeant Paul Junghans Jr. in Winchester, a native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. When she applied Paul was based at the Headquarters Detachment Engineers, A.E.F., London. Rosina intended to live at 312 Roberts Street, Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin and hoped to sail on 10th June.

Rosin Billings Junghans (NARA/Ancestry)

Rosin Billings Junghans (NARA/Ancestry)

Eileen O’Donnell, 19, Mitchelstown, Co. Cork. Husband in United States Army. London Consulate. Passport issued 15th August 1919.

Eileen was born in Mitchelstown on 30th June 1901. She had lived in Ireland from her birth to that date, and had never been to the United States. Eileen had arrived in London on 4th August 1919. Her husband Edmund O’Donnell had emigrated to the United States in 1880, and had lived in Ansonia, Connecticut from that date until on, becoming a naturalized citizen there on 19th October 1896. At the time of their marriage Edmund was serving in the A.E.F., and 80 Howard Avenue in Ansonia was to be the couple’s home.

Eileen O'Donnell (NARA/Ancestry)

Eileen O’Donnell (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret O’Donoghue Tipton, 27, Cork City. Husband in United States Army. Paris Consulate. Passport issued 29th December 1919?

Margaret Mary O’Donoghue was born in Cork on 26th October 1892. On 7th June 1919 she married Lieutenant Andrew Ralph Tipton in Paris. Andrew was with 141e Aero Squadron of the AEF. He had been born in Tyler, Texas on 11th September 1896 and made his home in Clarkedale, Arizona. He entered the U.S. Army in Los Angeles in 1917.

Margaret O'Donoghue Tipton (NARA/Ancestry)

Margaret O’Donoghue Tipton (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Dublin

Georgina Scarry, 27, Dublin. Husband in United States Army. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 28th July 1919.

Georgina Sandes was born in Dublin on 22nd October 1891 to Joseph Sandes and Georgina (Durkin) Sandes, both also of Dublin. She had lived in Dublin all her life and never been to the United States. On 22nd May 1919 she married Herbert J. Scarry in Dublin. Herbert, who was also a Dublin native, had emigrated to America via Liverpool around June 1915. He lived in Boston until 5th October 1917, when he enlisted in the United States Army. At the time of their marriage he was a Corporal in the Co. B.P.E.S. of the American Expeditionary Force. At the time of Georgina’s application Herbert was stationed in Bourges, Cherbourg in France. The couple intended to make their home at 12 Haughton Street in Boston.

Georgina Scarry (NARA/Ancestry)

Georgina Scarry (NARA/Ancestry)

Sheila Mary Ayers, 19, Dublin, Husband in United States Army. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 18th March 1919.

Sheila (née Brooks) was born in Dublin on 14th February 1900. Her parents James and Christina Brooks were both also born in Dublin. She had lived in Ireland’s capital until 28th April 1914, when she moved to Liverpool. On 26th December 1918 she was married at the Embarkation Camp in Liverpool to Sergeant John W Ayers of the 362nd Infantry, Company L. He had enlisted in El Centro, California on 26th April 1918 and was then stationed at the Embarkation Camp in Knotty Ash. The couple planned to make their home in Seely, California, and Sheila planned to sail on the Aquitania on 21st March 1919. She appears to be the sister of Christine Mary Brice below.

Sheila Mary Ayers (NARA/Ancestry)

Sheila Mary Ayers (NARA/Ancestry)

Christine Mary Brice, 25, Dublin, Husband in United States Army. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 18th March 1919.

Christine (née Brooks) was born in Dublin on 10th January 1894. She left Dublin for Liverpool in April 1914, where the war brought her in contact with Private Emmet T. Brice of Knoxville, Iowa. He was serving in Co. 12 Camp, JARD (162nd Infantry), having enlisted in Bentonville, Arkansas on 27th May 1918. The couple married in the Embarkation Camp at Liverpool on 19th January 1919. Christine was the sister on Sheila Mary Ayers above, and had never been to the United States. When Christine applied her husband was in the Embarkation Camp in Knotty Ash, the same location as Sheila’s husband. Like Sheila, she hoped to sail to her new life on the Aquitania on 21st March 1919. There the two sister’s journey together would end; when Christine got to America she was going to make her home in Siloam Springs, Arkansas– a long way from Sheila in California.

Christine Mary Brice (NARA/Ancestry)

Christine Mary Brice (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Galway

Delia Furey, 33, Craughwell, Co. Galway. Husband in United States Army. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 23rd June 1919.

Delia Connolly was born in Craughwell on 21st April 1886 to Martin and Bridget Connolly. Her husband John J. Furey was from the same town, and both had emigrated to the United States in 1910. John variously made his home in Boston and Perth Amboy, and the couple were married on 6th September 1914 in Brooklyn. She left America on 15th September, only ten days after the wedding. Living first in Craughwell, Delia moved to Sutton, Co. Dublin in March 1915, where the couple’s son John Benedict Furey was born on 27th April 1915. Delia spent the war years as a waitress, moving from Sutton to Arcadia, Howth in June 1918. Meanwhile John J. had enlisted in the army at Syracuse, New York. He became a private in the 11th Company, 3rd Battalion on 31st July 1918 and was demobilised on 15th January 1919. As the wife of a serviceman, Delia was able to secure passage back to the United States for her and her son, which was the purpose of her application. She was to make her home with her husband at 403 Gordon Street in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. They were due to sail on the Army Transport SS Louisville on 24th June 1919.

Delia Furey (NARA/Ancestry)

Delia Furey (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Kerry

Mary Bridget Mannix, 27, Knockeenduff, Killarney, Co. Kerry. Husband in United States Army. Queenstown Consulate. Passport issued 2nd June 1919.

Mary Bridget O’Connor had been born in Knockeenduff on 8th February 1892 to Michael O’Connor of Loughtetene and Hannah (O’Shea) O’Connor of Kilcummin. She had married Denis Mannix at the Church of S.S. Mary & Anne, Shandon, Cork on 5th April 1913. Her husband was born in Keelclogherane, Co. Kerry, and had emigrated to the United States via Liverpool on 4th July 1914. Mary seems not to have gone with him; she had lived in Liverpool from 1907 to 1908, but the stated she spent the years between 1908 and 1919 in Ireland. Denis had declared his intention to become a U.S. citizen in Boston in 1916, and was due to be naturalized on his return from service in France. He had enlisted as a private in the 338th Infantry in Boston in July 1918 and was demobilised there in April 1919. Mary intended to live with Denis at 235 East Eagle Street in East Boston, and hoped to sail on the SS Plattsburg on 4th June.

Mary Bridget Mannix (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Bridget Mannix (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Kildare

Mary Agnes Down, 19, Newbridge, Co. Kildare. Husband in United States Army. Southampton Consulate. Passport issued 29th May 1919.

Mary Agnes Lally was born in Newbridge on 9th June 1899. Her father John was from Birr, Co. Offaly, while her mother Mary was from Fethard, Co. Tipperary. Mary had lived in England since September 1899. She met and married Ralph Edward Down of Iowa on 23rd December 1918 at St. Peter’s Church in Winchester. Ralph was serving as a private in the Quarter Master Corps, having entered the service in Iowa in April 1917. Mary hoped to make her home at 708 Birch Street, Atlantic, Iowa and hoped to sail aboard the SS Plattsburg on 4th June 1919.

Mary Agnes Down (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Agnes Down (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Louth

Mary Carroll, 29, Drogheda, Co. Louth, Husband in the American Expeditionary Force. Belfast Consulate. Passport issued 8th August 1919.

Mary Fitzgerald was born in Drogheda on 3rd May 1889– both her parents John and Annie were also from the town. She married Daniel Carroll of Bessbrook, Co. Armagh in Carrickcruppen (also Co. Armagh) on 25th January 1910. The couple thereafter emigrated to Chicago. Their first child, James, was born there on 17th January 1913; Mary returned to Bessbrook for the birth of their daughter, Mary Patricia, on 23rd July 1914. She remained in Ireland throughout the war, but her husband, still in America, enlisted as a Private in the A.E.F. in New York on 18th April 1918 and was discharged in May 1919. Daniel was now waiting for his wife at 316 East 54th Street in New York. Mary intended to sail with her children on the SS Plattsburg leaving on the 13th August 1919.

Mary Carroll (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Carroll (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Mayo

Anna Gaynard Shearn, 27, Derymore, Hollymount, Co. Mayo. Husband in United States Army. London Consulate. Passport issued 3rd July 1919.

Anna Marie Gaynard was born in Derymore on 21st July 1889 to Michael and Mary Gaynard. She lived in Ireland until 1909,before emigrating to Philadelphia. She returned to Ireland again in 1916 and stayed there until the time of her application. She married Patrick D. Shearn of Centralia, Pennsylvania in Kilcona, Ireland on 1st May 1918. At the time of her application Anna’s husband was at 2944 North Ringgold Street in Philadelphia. Anna hoped to sail to join him on 4th July. It was noted on her application that she had just come to London from Ireland and knew no-one there.

Anna Gaynard Shearn (NARA/Ancestry)

Anna Gaynard Shearn (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Monaghan

Mary Ellen McCarthy, 24, Monaghan. Husband in United States Army. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 2nd September 1919. 

Mary Ellen Sherlock was born in Monaghan on 25th October 1894. She lived there until March 1919, when she moved to Liverpool. Mary Ellen had never been to the United States. On 23rd August 1919 she married Patrick M. McCarthy, a native of Browning, Montana, at St. Mary’s Church in Bootle, Liverpool. Patrick was then awaiting redeployment to the United States. Mary Ellen intended to make her home with him in Browning.

Mary Ellen McCarthy (NARA/Ancestry)

Mary Ellen McCarthy (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Offaly

Nora McCabe, 27, Clara, King’s County (Offaly). Husband in United States Army. Dublin Consulate. Passport issued 7th August 1919.

Nora Bergin was born in Clara on 2nd July 1892 to Robert Begin, a native of Tipperary, and Mary (Dempsey) Bergin, of King’s County. She had lived in Ireland all her life. Her husband Joseph McCabe had been born in Dublin, and had emigrated to the United States via Liverpool around 1911. He lived in Jersey City for the next seven years, before enlisting there as a private in the American Army in April 1917. He was demobilised at Camp Upton, New York on 18th June 1919. The couple had been married in Dublin on 21st April 1919. Nora intended to make her home at 272 Hoboken Avenue, Jersey City, New Jersey, and hoped to sail from Liverpool on 13th August 1919.

Nora McCabe (NARA/Ancestry)

Nora McCabe (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Sligo

Elizabeth Scott, 22, Sligo. Husband in United States Army. Cardiff Consulate. Passport issued 21st August 1919.

Elizabeth Whittaker was born in Sligo on 14th April 1897 to John and Bridget Whittaker. She had lived in Britain and Ireland all her life, and gave her present address as 76 Phyllis Street, Barry Island in Wales. Her husband Edward W.J. Scott had been born in Barry, Wales and had emigrated to America from Cardiff in January 1917. He had married Elizabeth at Penarth, Wales prior to his departure, on 13th December 1916. Edward declared his intention to become a U.S. citizen in Brooklyn, and on 28th September 1917 entered the U.S. Army in the same location. At the time of Elizabeth’s application he was a Sergeant on Company B of the 326th Infantry, stationed at Brest and awaiting re-embarkation for America. The couple celebrated the birth of a daughter, Marie, at Penarth on 12th March 1917. Elizabeth intended to make her home at 54 Vandyke Street, Erie Basin, Brooklyn.

Elizabeth Scott (NARA/Ancestry)

Elizabeth Scott (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Tyrone

Mabel Christina Smith, 25, Strabane, Co. Tyrone. Husband in United States Army. Liverpool Consulate. Passport issued 1st September 1919.

Mabel Christina O’Reilly was born in Strabane on 16th December 1893 to Edward O’Reilly of Strabane and Mary O’Reilly of “Ballybraz.” She had lived in Ireland and England all her life, and had ever been to the United States. Her husband Robert Samuel Smith had also been born Strabane, and had emigrated to America via Liverpool around 1909. He had lived in Bridgeport, Connecticut until 1917, when he entered the U.S. Army. At the time of her application Robert was serving as a Corporal and was in Brest awaiting his return to the United States. Mabel was then living in Mossley House, Liverpool. The couple had married in Laragh, Co. Tyrone? on 20th August 1919. Mabel intended to travel on the SS President Grant on 4th September 1919, and to make her home at 31 Merchant Street, Bridgeport, Connecticut.

Mabel Christina Smith (NARA/Ancestry)

Mabel Christina Smith (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Wexford

Eleanor Jane Cassidy, 33, Bannow, Co. Wexford. Husband in United States Army. Paris Consulate. Passport issued 13th June 1919.

Eleanor was born in Bannow on 11th October 1885. She had married John Cassidy, a soldier in the U.S. Army, while in France. It is probable Eleanor was herself serving in some capacity, though this is not stated. John was from Philadelphia, which is where the couple intended to make their home. Eleanor had never been to America before.

Eleanor Cassidy (NARA/Ancestry)

Eleanor Cassidy (NARA/Ancestry)

Service/Residence in France by County

Co. Donegal

Isabel Wilson Warner, 28, Co. Donegal. Husband in United States Army. Application in United States. Passport issued 25th September 1919.

Isabel was born in Co. Donegal on 11th November 1887. Her husband William E.R. Warner, a New Yorker, was a Major in the A.E.F., and at the time of her application he was stationed in Paris. Isabel intended to travel from New York to join him in France, and hoped to sail as soon as possible in October 1919.

Isabel Wilson Warner (NARA/Ancestry)

Isabel Wilson Warner (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Dublin

 

Constance Ramony Gideon, 28, Dublin, Entertainer with the Soldiers in France. Application in Boston, Massachusetts. Passport issued 18th November 1918. 

Constance, who had been born in Dublin, was married to Kentuckian Henry Louis Gideon. The couple lived at 278 Highland Street, Dedham, Massachusetts. Constance was a musician, and was travelling to France as part of the “Over-There Theatre League under Y.M.C.A.” to entertain the troops. She planned on sailing from New York in November 1918 and intended to return to America when the war was over.

Constance Ramony Gideon (NARA/Ancestry)

Constance Ramony Gideon (NARA/Ancestry)

Carmel White, 31, Dublin, Red Cross Hospital Hut Service. Application in New York, New York. Passport issued 22nd October 1918. 

Carmel was born in Dublin on 21st August 1887. Her father Peter had died, and her mother Ann remarried on 18th July 1906 to an American citizen, an act which entitled her to citizenship though her step-father. She had lived in France and Belgium in 1904 and 1905 and between 1908 and 1912. She was now living at 145 West 58th Street New York where she worked as a dressmaker. She applied in September 1918 to go to France and work for the Red Cross Hospital Hut Service.

Carmel White (NARA/Ancestry)

Carmel White (NARA/Ancestry)

Evelyn G.N. Purcell, 31, Dublin, Army Nurse. Application in United States. Passport issued 23rd October 1917. 

Evelyn was born in Dublin on 8th October 1886. She emigrated to America from Liverpool aboard the Majestic in May 1900. She lived for the next 17 years in Mount Vernon, New York, and had become naturalized on 7th February 1913. She was now an Army Nurse, stationed with the Army Nurses Corps on Island No. 3, Ellis Island in New York. She required the passport to go to France in that capacity and intended to travel on 1st November 1917.

Evelyn Purcell (NARA/Ancestry)

Evelyn Purcell (NARA/Ancestry)

Ellen Smith Aunkst, 20, Dublin, Army Nurse? Application in France. Passport issued 4th October 1919.

Ellen was applying for her special passport at the U.S. Consulate in Brest, France. She had been born in Dublin on 4th July 1899. On 27th September 1919 she had married Private Thomas A. Aunkst at St. Loubes, France. He had been serving in the Camp Infirmary at Saint Sulpice, France. Thomas was a native of Dewart, Pennsylvania and had joined the U.S. Army on 5th September 1918 in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Their new home address would be in Montgomery, Pennsylvania.

Ellen Smith Aunkst (NARA/Ancestry)

Ellen Smith Aunkst (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Fermanagh

Anne L. Carson, 30, Enniskillen, Nurse in United States Army Reserve Corps. Application in United States. Passport issued 13th July 1917. 

Anne was born in Enniskillen on 12th June 1887. She had emigrated to America from Londonderry aboard the Caledonia in February 1908, and had settled in Winchester, Virginia. She had been naturalized in Harrisonburg on 7th December 1915. Her home was now in Riverton, Virginia, where she worked as a nurse. She left the United States for Europe on 30th June 1917, landing in Liverpool on 9th July. In London when she applied for the emergency passport, it was intended that she would serve in France. The passport was issued on 13th July 1917.

Anne L. Carson (NARA/Ancestry)

Anne L. Carson (NARA/Ancestry)

Isabella McNeil Carson, 29, Enniskillen, Nurse in United States Army Reserve Corps. Application in United States. Passport issued 13th July 1917.

Presumably the sister of Anne, Isabella was born in Enniskillen on 25th December 1888. She emigrated with her on the Caldeonia in February 1908, and also settled in Winchester, Virginia. She was naturalized in Richmond on 3rd October 1916. Aside from her time in Virginia, she had also lived in the Philippine Islands. Her home address was now Riverton, Virginia. She had left the United States for Europe at the same time as her sister, and also intended to serve in France. Her passport was issued on 13th July 1917.

Isabella McNeil Carson (NARA/Ancestry)

Isabella McNeil Carson (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Longford

Marcella McCaw, 26, Longford. Army Officer’s Wife. Passport issued 29th August 1919.

Marcella was born in Longford on 29th September 1892. Her husband William McCaw was born in McKeesport, Pennsylvania. Marcella was making the application for her home in 329 South Highland Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where she was a housewife. She intended to bring herself and her daughter Peggy (then one year and four months old) to France, where her husband was serving as a Captain in the Medical Corps. She intended to leave the United States from New York on 1st September 1919.

Marcella McCaw (NARA/Ancestry)

Marcella McCaw (NARA/Ancestry)

Co. Waterford

Lucy Carolyn Main, 31, Waterford, Y.M.C.A. Entertainer. Application in Chicago, Illinois. Passport issued 20th August 1918. 

Lucy was born in Waterford on 9th September 1886. Her father William Holloway Main had been born in Adams Centre, New York and now lived in Chicago. In the pre-war years Lucy had also lived in England, Scotland and France as well as Chicago. A musician by trade, she had served as a Y.M.C.A. entertainer in France, England and Italy. She planned to return to Europe on 1st August 1918 from New York aboard a French steamer.

Lucy Carolyn Main (NARA/Ancestry)

Lucy Carolyn Main (NARA/Ancestry)

References

National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.

      Passport Applications, January 2, 1906- March 31, 1925

      Emergency Passport Applications, Argentina thru Venezuela, 1906-1925

      Applications of Wives of Members of the AEF in Europe.

Irish Marriages 1845-1958 Database, Find My Past

U.S. Navy Casualty Reports

http://www.ancestry.com

http://www.findmypast.ie

http://www.fold3.com

Categories: 20th Century | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

The Midleton and Cloyne Tramway, 1884

Lartigue Rail, Ballybunion, Co. Kerry (National Library of Ireland)

Lartigue Rail, Ballybunion, Co. Kerry (Ref: LROY 4275, National Library of Ireland)

In the mid-1880s proposals were being put forward for the construction of a tramway between Midleton and Cloyne under the Tramways Act. While many local business people seem to have been in favour of the scheme, there was also considerable opposition to it, as it would have led to an increase in rates. The latter would appear to have won out. There were a number of newspaper articles about these proposals in 1884. One in particular provides some detailed information on both population and trade in Midleton, Ballinacurra, Cloyne and Ballycotton, and is worthy of reproduction in full here. It recounts evidence that was provided in support of and in opposition to the scheme, and gives a fascinating insight into certain aspects of life in the area; how important Ballinacurra was as a port, the size of the fishing population in Ballycotton, and the population difference in the 1880s between Cloyne and Midleton.

THE MIDLETON AND CLOYNE TRAMWAY

Mr. Atkinson, QC (for the promoters), stated that this was an application for the construction of a tramway between Midleton and Cloyne, to run about seven miles. The project was promoted by a number of local gentlemen, including Mr. Penrose Fitzgerald, Dr. Reardon, & c., and it was stated that £16,000 of the capital had been placed locally in case of the line not paying. Only a sum of some 7d or 8d in the £1 would fall on the barony which would be taxed. As an instance of the popularity of the line he might mention that every elected Poor-aw guardian was in favour of it. The Government had made a proposal to grant a sum of £16,000 for the construction of a new pier at Ballycotton, on condition of a sum of £4,000 being subscribed locally. this £4,000 was forthcoming, and with the construction of the pier the fishing there would be greatly developed, and a large traffic would result from it.

Mr. Savage French deposed that he was a promoter of the line in question. The population of Midleton last census was 308, and there were a large number of good business houses there. It was proposed to have sidings connecting the premises of the Cork Distillery Company, several business stores and mills, and the gas company, with the main line. At Ballinacurra the line would run down to the pier. He estimated the imports at 21,400 tons to Ballinacurra, which estimate did not include the private lighter trade. The seaboard traffic–inward and outward–was represented at something over 40,000 tons. This traffic principally went to Midleton. The population of Cloyne was 11,026. Cloyne was six miles from Ahadagh, and five from Midleton Railway Station. Between Ballinacurra and Cloyne the traffic would likely be 14,000 tons, which would be in addition to the other traffic referred to. At Ballycotton there were 147 men and some forty boys engaged in fishing and their fish traffic would be very large. The new pier would greatly develop the fish traffic. Witness had made an estimate as regards the passenger traffic, and he had put down the number as 3,000 passengers a year. Calculating this at 6d a head it would come to about £2 per day. The line would enable the buyers to come to the farmers for their corn. A sum of £1,500 had been already taken up locally. He confessed there was a good deal of opposition.

Cross-examined by Mr. Roche–He had himself entered five hundred of the fifteen hundred pounds he spoke of. He was aware of the fact that the grand jury of county Cork had held two meetings in regard to the question of this guarantee. At the first meeting a resolution was passed to the effect that the line was approved, subject to the promoters giving a ten years’ guarantee. At the second meeting, held some days subsequently, this requirement was passed over, and the line approved of.

The Lord Chancellor remarked that there was nothing extraordinary in this. The grand jurors had thought at first that they could better secure matters by requiring such a guarantee, but, finding that they could not legally exact this, they had given up the idea.

Mr. Connolly, Harbour Master, Ballinacurra, gave evidence regarding the imports and exports at his harbour.

Mr. James Penrose Fitzgerald, agent to Lord Midleton and to his brother, Mr. R U Penrose Fitzgerald, a director of the company, gave evidence in support of the proposal.

Mr. Murphy and Mr. Daniel Cronan, residing in the district, also gave evidence.

Mr. Custian, publican, explained that the estimate of trade traffic was framed on statistics supplied at a meeting of the traders of Cloyne specifically assembled for the purpose.

Mr. Stevenson, CE, who had drawn up the plans and laid out the line, gave evidence regarding the route and particulars as to estimate. This close[d] the case for the promoters.

Mr. Roche, QC, for the opposing ratepayers, contended that the proceedings before the grand jury showed that a great uncertainty prevailed regarding the desirability of this scheme. Twenty-three grand jurors had at one meeting refused to pass the scheme unless a ten years’ guarantee was given, and at a subsequent and a smaller meeting this resolution had been set aside.

The Lord Chancellor said they had nothing whatever to do with that circumstance now. It was sufficient for the committee that the grand jury had passed the scheme, and their business now was simply and solely to inquire into the merits and see if they could recommend it to the Lord Lieutenant for approval.

Mr. Roche, QC, continuing, stated that the figures given regarding the traffic were not strictly correct, but were based on wrong assumptions.

Mr. Smith, JP, was called in support of the appeal, and stated that he had land in the district the valuation of which was £459. He had a memorial against the scheme signed largely by farmers representing land to the amount of £15,817 valuation. Speaking as a farmer, he did not believe the line would pay. The Midleton board of guardians on two occasions dissented to the proposition as well as the Town Commissioners.

Cross-examined by Mr. Atkinson–He was not in a position to contradict the statement that with but the exception of three guardians–one of whom was himself–all the guardians representing the taxed area had assented. The memorial was signed after a statement by witness that the county cess would be increased if the line was constructed. The statement was not a conditional one.

Mr. Dennis McCarthy, shopkeeper, Midleton, presented a memorial signed by appellants representing £2,647 valuation in Midleton.

The committee adjourned at this state till half past eleven o’clock to-morrow morning. (1)

The Morning News, Belfast, 7th August 1884

The division that existed in the area surrounding the tramway was typified by the note in the Cork Examiner of 28th June 1884, which notified that readers that “in consequence of a meeting having been called in Cloyne for Tuesday, July 1st, on the above tramway, the meeting of cesspayers in opposition to same, will be held in the Courthouse, Midleton, on Thursday, July 3rd, at 12 o’Clock, which all cesspayers from the proposed area of taxation would find it to their interest to attend.” (2)

Though the tramway was never constructed, plans do appear to have been drawn up, which would be fascinating to see. We hope to do more research into this– if any readers have any more detail on the proposed scheme we would love to hear from you.

(1) The Morning News, (Belfast) 7th August 1884; (2) The Cork Examiner, 28th June 1884;

Image Credit: National Library of Ireland Flickr Page

Categories: Nineteenth Century | Tags: , , , | 1 Comment

The “47th Sheep Stealers” of Thomas Street, Midleton

During the era of the Famine detachments of British units were to be found throughout the country providing aid to the civil power. In 1847, a Company of the 47th (The Lancashire) Regiment were quartered at Thomas Street, the first reference we have come across to troops being stationed on the street at this time. Apparently the sight of a prize ram in a nearby field was too much for some of the soldier’s to resist– but their deeds were exposed thanks to the testimony of one of the town butchers. The irony that the troops were based in Midleton in order to protect property was not lost on the local correspondent who related the story:

MILITARY SHEEP STEALERS

In the course of the last week a gentleman residing in the vicinity of Midleton, near Killea, (Mr. Welland) engaged a prize ram for breeding purposes for £20 which, with two sheep, was left our at night to pasture in a field about a mile distant from Middleton. On missing them one morning, information was conveyed to the police, who made every effort to discover their whereabouts, but with no success. The secret, however, soon transpired. A knife, lost by the depredators, was found, and on its being shown by the police to a butcher resident in Middleton he instantly identified it as his property which on the previous evening he lent to a few of the soldiers of the 47th Regt., a company of which is at present stationed in Middleton, with a view to the protection of property, as well as the preservation of the peace of the country. The constabulary instantly proceeded to Thomas Street, Middleton, where the military are quartered, and on examination discovered portions of the carcasses of the slaughtered animals safely deposited in a coal hole. Suspicion strongly attaching to three of the gallant corps, they were arrested and taken before the sitting magistrates, who decided on receiving informations against them; and they now await their trial at the ensuing sessions in durance.

It is to be regretted that the conduct of a few scoundrels should have the effect of bringing into disrepute a gallant body of men, such as unquestionably is the 47th Regt., who, since the unhappy occurrence, are denominated by the people here– “the 47th sheep stealers.”– Middleton Correspondent. (1)

A Prize Ram (The Mark Lane Express, Wikimedia)

A Prize Ram (The Mark Lane Express, Wikimedia)

A postscript to the incident was reported in the Cork Examiner of 8th January:

THE MILITARY SHEEP-STEALERS

It is said that Capt. Armstrong, lately commanding the party of soldiers stationed at Midleton, has left the regiment in consequence of the disgrace incurred by the recent conviction of three privates of the party at the Fermoy Sessions. At the same time, the gallant detachment have got the route, “for the protection of life and property.” (2)

It would be interested to discover what became of both the soldiers and Captain Armstrong, and also to discover if the coal-hole used to conceal their misdeeds on Thomas Street still exists.

(1) Cork Examiner 1st January 1847; (2) Cork Examiner 8th January 1847;

Categories: Nineteenth Century | Tags: , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Chasing the Oval: Historic Reports of Rugby in Midleton, 1889-1967

For those interested in international rugby, exciting times are back as the 6 Nations Championship is once again in full swing. Midleton is a town that is now steeped in the rugby tradition, with strong links to the game through the town’s AIL club Midleton RFC, and also with Schools Rugby, notably Midleton College. We decided to take a look back through the pages of the Irish Examiner and gain a historic perspective on the game in the town, which stretches back into the 19th century.

Dave O'Callaghan (Munster Rugby) and Clive Ross (Ulster Rugby), both products of Midleton College, where rugby has been played since the 19th century

Dave O’Callaghan (Munster Rugby) and Clive Ross (Ulster Rugby), both products of Midleton College, where rugby has been played since the 19th century

More than 120 years before producing the likes of Dave O’ Callaghan and Clive Ross, Midleton College was fielding rugby teams. The Cork Examiner of 9th April 1889 brought news of an “interesting football match, under the Rugby rules” which took place between the College and the second fifteen of Cork Queen’s College. Unfortunately for the Midleton boys, the Cork students “displayed their superiority” from the moment of “the leather being put in motion” and emerged victorious by 1 goal and 2 points to no score.

9 April 1889 (Irish Examiner)

The report of the match between Midleton College and the Cork Queen’s College second fifteen, 9 April 1889 (Cork Examiner)

Midleton College faired much better in a game against Cork Grammar School in 1892. The Midleton ream “rushed to the front” and showed some nice “give and take play” to score a try, which was soon followed by another. However, despite some “well-concentrated rushes” in the second half they failed to add to their tally, but luckily held on for the win, by 1 goal and 2 tries to 2 tries.

19 October 1892 (Irish Examiner)

The report of the match between Midleton College and Cork Grammar School, 19 October 1892 (Cork Examiner)

Midleton College’s Gloster, who had been a standout in the 1892 game, was still going strong in 1895, when Midleton took on Tipperary College. The strength of the Tipp team left Midleton dependent “almost entirely on the swiftness of their forwards,” but apparently they were ” not able to show on the soft ground.” Whenever “the oval” came into a Midleton forward’s hands, the “would not have gone twenty yards when he made the acquaintance of mother earth.” When the final whistle sounded, Midleton had been defeated by four tries to nil.

29 November 1895 (Irish Examiner)

The match report of Tipperary College and Midleton School, 29 November 1895 (Cork Examiner)

Outside of Midleton College, the town’s first Rugby Football Club was founded in the 1927/28 season (for a summary of the history of clubs in the town, see the Midleton RFC site here). It only survived for a few years, but despite that made an impression on the community. The Cork Examiner brought an advertisement on 29th September 1928 for the First Annual Dance to support the club, which was due to take place on Tuesday 2nd October in Midleton Town Hall. Perhaps in an effort to attract the ladies, women enjoyed a reduced entrance fee, while a discount was available for couples. A running buffet was planned, with dancing scheduled from 9 pm on; musical accompaniment was to brought by Brierley’s Dance Band.

29 September 1928 (Irish Examiner)

Advertisement for the First Annual Dance of Midleton RFC, 29 September 1928 (Cork Examiner)

We are fortunate that some images of this iteration of Midleton RFC are left to us. The Cork Examiner of 27th March 1929 ran a photograph of the team that had put Dungarvan to the sword by 16 points to 3.

27 March 1929 (Cork Examiner)

The Midleton RFC team who defeated Dungarvan 16-3, 27th March 1929 (Cork Examiner)

Despite the demise of the first Midleton RFC, the town was not left without a team, as there was separate entity called the Midletonettes taking the field. As explained by the present-day Midleton RFC website, it was this team that is regarded as the direct antecedent of the current club.

8 February 1932 (Cork Examiner)

Rugby results, included the score of the Conettes and the Midletonettes, reported on 8 February 1932 (Cork Examiner)

 

29 November 1932 (Cork Examiner)

The Mideltonettes defeat the Covettes, reported on 29 November 1932 (Cork Examiner)

The modern Midleton RFC played their first game against Bandon in 1967, the beginning of a long and proud tradition. The “oval ball” still gets a consistent outing in the town, drawing crowds today much as it did more than 125 years ago. The story of the game, and indeed of the town’s history in other sporting codes, is something we hope to return to in future posts.

Categories: 20th Century, Nineteenth Century | Tags: , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Visiting the “Old Country”: Photographs & Stories of Returning Midleton Emigrants, 1915-1924

We recently looked at Midleton emigrants who found themselves in New York Poorhouses in the 19th Century. Returning to the topic of emigration, we have taken a look at United States passport applications in the 1910s and 1920s by people who had been born in Midleton. In all bar two of the cases below, these were emigrants from the town or parish who were seeking to return to visit Cork. The majority of them were doing so to reunite with family. As per usual, there are some fascinating stories among them. Edmond Bowler was travelling to “visit the Old Country”, while Margaret Talbott was going to “see the old homestead.” Some, like Joseph Hickey, were going to see their parents. Joseph had apparently not been back to Ireland since his emigration, but he had been to France– serving with the American Expeditionary Force during World War One. Mary Ryan was going back to Whitegate with her newborn to show off the child to her father, while the entire Buckley family where making the journey to attend to “family business.”

The 'Celtic', a vessel that a number of the Midleton emigrants returned on (Imperial War Museum via Wikipedia)

The “Celtic”, a vessel that a number of the Midleton emigrants returned on (Imperial War Museum via Wikipedia)

Throughout these emigrants lives, connections to Midleton remained strong. Abbie Keefe had emigrated as a young child, and in almost 50 years never returned to Ireland. Yet she still kept contact with relatives here, and eventually returned in old age to visit them. Hannah Walsh spent 52 years in Boston without going home, but at the age of 75 she sold up her Boston house, returning to Midleton to live out her final days with her sister.

Two of the passport applications below are not like the others. They were made not by Midleton emigrants in the United States, but by two young women from the parish who had never been out of Ireland. Both had married U.S. sailors stationed in Queenstown during World War One, and they were now hoping to start new lives in America. In the case of one of the women– Bridget Mahony (Lynch)– the marriage came after her pregnancy, a situation that was likely difficult for her in 1919 Ireland.

In reviewing the below, readers should note that the applications of married couples often prioritised the man’s details; also married Midleton women retained their married name on the application, making it difficult to determine their maiden names. By far the most remarkable element of these passports is what they have left us, as in each one is a photographic image of the applicant. They have been included beneath each bio below.

The "Philadelphia", another of the ships on which Midleton emigrants returned (US Navy Research Center)

The “Philadelphia”, another of the ships on which Midleton emigrants returned (US Navy Research Center)

William J Ahern, Passport Issued 15th April 1916

William was born in Midleton on 4th November 1869, and had emigrated to America aboard the Pavonia on 11th May 1887. He had never been home to Ireland in the intervening 29 years. He became naturalized in New York in 1899, where he still lived, at 55 Horatio Street. He worked as a Marine Engineer. He intended to travel back to Midleton for one year to see his wife and children. His intention was to sail aboard the Philadelphia on 22nd April 1916.

William J Ahern (Ancestry)

William J Ahern (Ancestry)

Edmond Bowler, Passport Issued 8th May 1920, Passport Issued 3rd July 1922

In his application Edmond stated that he was born in Midleton on 8th September 1869, and had emigrated to the United States from Liverpool in June 1895. He spent the next 25 years living in New York without ever travelling home. He became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1918. His occupation was a Railroad Gateman, and he lived at 139 East 15th Street. He planned to visit Cork for three months, sailing aboard the Celtic on 15th May 1920. When asked to put down his reason for travelling home, he initially wrote “Visit the Old Country”, but scratched out “the Old Country” and replaced it with “relatives.” Edmond again applied for a passport in 1922, when his address was 143 East 18th Street. His intention was again to visit relatives, and he hoped to sail on the Baltic on 8th July 1922.

Edmond Bowler (Ancestry)

Edmond Bowler (Ancestry)

Daniel Buckley, Passport Issued 13th July 1920

Daniel stated that he wanted to travel to Ireland with his wife Mary and children Mary (12), Anna (11), William (9) and Helen (1). He was born in Midleton on in July 1876, and had emigrated to the United States from Queenstown in October 1898. He lived at 140 Rodney Street in Brooklyn, and had become a naturalized citizen in 1905. A Stable Foreman by trade, he had previously visited Ireland from May to August in 1914. The purpose of this visit was given as “family business.” Like Edmond Bowler, he intended to travel on the Celtic, sailing on 28th August 1920.

The Buckley Family (Ancestry)

The Buckley Family (Ancestry)

John Cronin, Passport Issued 10th February 1920

John was born in Clonmult on 21st June 1886. He noted that his father was called Edmond. John emigrated from Queenstown on 4th September 1911 and went to Spokane in Washington State. He was naturalized there in 1917. In 1920 he lived in Rosalia, Washington where he was a clergyman. He intended to travel to Europe for 6 months, to visit family in Ireland, be a tourist in England and be a tourist in France and Belgium. He planned to leave New York aboard the Philadelphia on 22nd May 1920.

Father John Cronin (Ancestry)

Father John Cronin (Ancestry)

Richard Cronin, Passport Issued 12th March 1920

Richard mentioned that he was born in Midleton on 13th June 1869. He sailed to the United States from Ireland in 1886, spending the next 24 years in America without visiting home. He had spent from 1890 to 1919 in the U.S. Navy, and was naturalized in 1899. He lived at 413 West 19th Street following his retirement from the service. He wanted to go back to Midleton to visit relatives and because his health was failing. He intended to sail on the 20th March 1920.

Richard Cronin (Ancestry)

Richard Cronin (Ancestry)

William Duhig, Passport Issued 19th December 1919

William was travelling home “to visit my mother who lives in Midleton.” His father Michael was now dead. He said he was born in the town on 14th February 1889, and had left for America from Queenstown on 24th May 1910. He spent the next 7 years in Boston, before spending more than a year at home. He now wanted to spend another 6 months with his mother, intending to travel on the S.S. Carmania on 21st January 1920. In Boston he worked as a Wool Grader, and lived at 7 Allen Street.

William Duhig (Ancestry)

William Duhig (Ancestry)

Thomas John Galvin, Passport Issued 15th March 1923

Thomas was born in Midleton on 22nd December 1868; he recorded that his father Garrett from Midleton was now dead. He had emigrated from Queenstown on 10th May 1887 and he had been naturalized in 1896. He had returned home before, spending almost a year in Cork between December 1898 and November 1899. He worked as a laborer and made his home at 520 45th Street in Brooklyn. He intended to sail aboard the President Adams on 9th April 1923 in the company of his Irish wife Kathleen, with the purpose of his trip being a “visit.”

Thomas Galvin (Ancestry)

Thomas Galvin (Ancestry)

Lillian Hart, Passport Issued 28th June 1920

Lillian was born in Midleton on 19th January 1885; her husband was an American, Burnham Hart from West Cornwall, Connecticut. They lived at 192 Bradhurst Avenue in New York. The purpose of the trip was for Lillian to see her parents. She intended to travel aboard the Baltic on 4th September 1920.

Lillian Hart (Ancestry)

Lillian Hart (Ancestry)

Joseph Hickey, Passport Issued 11th August 1921

Joseph noted that he had been born in Midleton on 1st February 1886, and he had emigrated out of Queenstown on 11th March 1905. He had never visited home in all the time since, and was naturalized in California in 1919. However, he had been abroad- Joseph had served in France during World War One with the American Expeditionary Force. He now lived at 26th Street and 4th Avenue in New York, where he worked as a painter. He was going back to Midleton to see his parents, and intended to stay 6 months. His intended sailing was aboard the Olympic on 13th August 1921.

Joseph Hickey (Ancestry)

Joseph Hickey (Ancestry)

Abbie Keefe, Passport Issued 27th August 1921

Abbie was born in Midleton on 10th December 1867; her husband Morris was also from Ireland. He emigrated from Queenstown around 1866, and lived in Aurora, Illinois until 1903 (presumably the year of his death). Abbie had emigrated in 1875, and had now moved from Aurora to Waterbury, Connecticut, where she was keeping house. She hoped to go to Ireland for one year to visit relatives. It is interesting to note that Abbie had emigrated to America as a child, yet despite the passage of nearly 50 years was still going to visit her birthplace.

Abbie Keefe (Ancestry)

Abbie Keefe (Ancestry)

Margaret Kowalski, Passport Issued 3rd September 1919

Margaret had been born in Midleton on 12th September 1899 and had lived in Ireland “all my life” and had “never been in U.S.” She applied to the U.S. Consulate in Queenstown for a passport, as she had married Wenceslaus Kowalski of the United States Navy in Midleton on 15th March 1919. He was a native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin where he lived at 914 11th Avenue. By the time Margaret applied, Wenceslaus had been moved on to Liverpool.

Margaret Kowalski (Ancestry)

Margaret Kowalski (Ancestry)

Katherine Lee, Passport Issued 29th November 1920

Katherine was born in Clonmult on 22nd December 1882. Her husband, Hugh Lee, was a native of Boston but had died. Katherine had lived in America from 1904, and appears not to have been home. She now lived at 61 Farragut Road in South Boston, where she had no occupation. She was travelling home to Clonmult to visit her father, and hoped to leave on the Celtic on 11th December 1920.

Katherine Lee (Ancestry)

Katherine Lee (Ancestry)

Bridget Mary Mahony, Passport Issued 8th July 1919

Bridget applied to the U.S. Consulate in Queenstown for a passport, citing her status as a wife of a member of the naval forces of the United States.She hoped to travel from Queenstown to the United States in the company of her daughter Veronica Mahony, who had been born at Queenstown on 9th May 1919. Bridget was born in Midleton on 7th May 1897, and her husband George Daniel Mahony had been born in America. She had married her husband in St. Colman’s Cathedral on 1st January 1919; he was then serving as a cook in the U.S. Navy aboard the USS Imperator. George had enlisted in Boston in May 1915. Bridget related that her father was Thomas Lynch from Midleton, and her mother was Mary (Geary) Lynch also from the town. Given the respective dates of the couple’s matrimony and the birth of their child, it seems likely that Bridget was pregnant with Veronica prior to their marriage. Bridget related that she was “never in [the] U.S.A.’ and had been in “Ireland all my life.” She intended her permanent address to be New York City.

Bridget Mary Mahony (Ancestry)

Bridget Mary Mahony (Ancestry)

Thomas McCarthy, Passport Issued 18th September 1924

Thomas was born in Midleton on 15th December 1861. His father had been Charles McCarthy, and he was now dead. Thomas had emigrated from Queenstown 1887, and spent the next 37 years in America without returning home. He made his home at 168 Prescott Street, Worcester, Massachusetts, where he was a Wine Inspector. He gave travel as the purpose of his journey, and intended to leave Boston on the Scythia on 21st September 1924.

Thomas McCarthy (Ancestry)

Thomas McCarthy (Ancestry)

Joseph Moore, Passport Issued 13th July 1915

Joseph applied for his passport in San Francisco, California. He was born in Midleton on 1st December 1881 and had emigrated aboard the Lukania from Liverpool on 31st December 1899. He had never returned to Ireland in the intervening period, but had travelled throughout the States, living in Boston, New York, Baltimore, Goldfield (Nevada), Oakland and San Francisco. He had been naturalized in San Francisco in 1908. His permanent residence was now Oakland, where he worked as a Horticulturist. He planned to go to Ireland to “attend to the settlement of my father’s estate” and also hoped to stop off in England to visit friends.

Joseph Moore (Ancestry)

Joseph Moore (Ancestry)

Annie Parker, Passport Issued 23rd September 1924

Annie was born in Whitegate on 13th April 1877. She left for America in 1892, and now lived at 3174 23rd Street in San Francisco, where she was engaged in housework. She had married Joseph Parker (from San Francisco) in Chicago on 4th October 1894 and had been widowed on 18th October 1918.Apparently having ever been home, Annie hoped to spend almost a year in both Ireland and England visiting relatives.

Annie Parker (Ancestry)

Annie Parker (Ancestry)

Mary Ryan, Passport Issued 10th June 1920

Mary intended to travel back to Midleton with her newborn child Mary for about two to three months. She had been born in Midleton on 29th January 1888, and her husband Stephen Ryan had also been born in Ireland. He had emigrated aboard the Cymric from Queenstown on 19th April 1905 and had spent the next 15 years in America. He was naturalized in 1919, and the family now lived at 20 Grafton Street, Dorchester, Massachusetts. The purpose of Mary’s visit was to visit her father, and she hoped to sail on 21st July 1920.

Mary Ryan (Ancestry)

Mary Ryan (Ancestry)

Margaret Talbott, Passport Issued 10th April 1922

Margaret was born in Midleton on 14th June 1870. Her husband Edward Talbot had also been born in Ireland. He had emigrated in 1888 and spent the next 34 years in Chicago. Margaret had lived in the United States uninterrupted for 36 years between 1886 and 1922, making her home at 6751 East End Avenue in Chicago. The purpose of her visit to Ireland was to “see the old homestead” and “visit relatives.” She planned to leave on the Celtic from New York on 3rd June 1922.

Margaret Talbot (Ancestry)

Margaret Talbot (Ancestry)

Hannah Walsh, Passport Issued 14th July 1920

Hannah was born in Midleton on 20th December 1835. Her husband Michael had also been born in Ireland and had emigrated from Queenstown in 1861, living in Boston until his death in 1890. He had been naturalized in 1868. Hannah had emigrated in 1867, and in the 52 years since had never been home to Ireland, living in Boston where she was a Lodging House Keeper. She was going back to Ireland to “reside with her sister,” and had arranged to sell her house to that purpose. She intended to leave on the Caronia on 24th July 1920.

Hannah Walsh (Ancestry)

Hannah Walsh (Ancestry)

References

Selected Passports. National Archives, Washington, D.C. [Accessed via Archive.com]

Categories: 20th Century | Tags: , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Portraits of Midleton People in New York Poorhouses, 1875-1915

The topic of Midleton people who emigrated away from the town and parish is one we have returned to a number of times. Many of those who left succeeded in improving their lot in life, uncovering opportunities that were unavailable to them at home. However, such was not the case for everyone. Many Midleton people faced times of struggle at some point after their departure. For some it would prove only a temporary setback, but for others it represented a permanent reduction in fortunes. In order to capture vignettes of some of these people’s lives, we have been looking at the records of residents in New York Poor Houses and Alms Houses, the State that likely took more 19th century Midleton emigrants than any other location on the planet. Below you will find details on almost 50 Midleton natives for whom hardship lay in store after their departure from Ireland. 

Underground lodgings for the poor of New York around 1869. Many people who ultimately ended up in Poor Houses would have been familiar with such scenes (Library of Congress)

Underground lodgings for the poor of New York around 1869. Many Midleton people who ultimately ended up in Poor Houses would have been familiar with such scenes (Library of Congress)

The topic of Irish dependents in New York Poor Houses has previously been examined on another site (see here). From 1875, these institutions were required to record details about those in their care, filling out forms that provide information on things such as age, marital status, emigration date, literacy, employment and cause of dependency. They also offered an opinion on whether or not individuals might escape dependency in the future. These records have been used to compile the brief biographical portraits you see below.

What is immediately apparent when reviewing the records is how easy it was to become dependent in 19th century New York. An inability to be able to earn a living was highly likely to leave individuals reliant on charity. Many of those below– such as men like Michael Humphrey– had suffered injuries which prevented them from working. Others, like Margaret Barry, were suffering from degenerative conditions such as the onset of blindness, which was a common physical reason for admission to Poor Houses.

The records not only tell us of hardship but also allow us to look at the trades of those admitted, and in many cases those of their fathers in Midleton. Many are typical of the working classes– laborers like John Colbert and John Hyde, or domestics like Mary Buckley and Mary Murphy. Some were tradesmen, like carpenter Patrick Brown, or worked as seamstresses, like Eliza Mead[e]. But there are also those who you might think less likely to find themselves in such straightened circumstances, such as John D. O’Brien, an engineer. Aside from trades, we can also gain an insight into differing literacy levels, which ranged from those who were able to read and write, like Michael Pomfrey, to people who could only read, like Hannah Mahony, or were completely illiterate, like Mary Collins.

As noted above, the onset of old age was a major factor leading to the dependence of many working-class people. Even where elderly individuals had adult children, those children often had families of their own or were too poor to be able to help with their parent’s support, resulting in their reliance on institutions. The reality for some– like William Ronan– was that they simply did not know where their children were. We often associate emigration with youth, but that was not always the case in the 19th century. Necessity often forced older people to uproot themselves from the place they had lived all their lives to cross the Atlantic. Thus we meet people like Ann Corcoran, who emigrated aged 50; Eliza Maher who left Midleton at 53; and Mary Welsh who left Cork forever at 60. Mary Keefe, who was 65-years-old, had only been in New York for a year and three months when she found herself in the Poor House.

The institutions were careful to note whether those in their care were of intemperate character, and went so far as to explore if that had been the case with their parents. In most instances where intemperance was recorded, it refers to alcohol abuse. The morality of the time also played a role on admittance. A number of young Midleton women were forced to seek aid in the Poor Houses for having children out of wedlock. It is in this context that we encounter the sad stories of 24-year-old Mary Ahearn, 23-year-old Mary Buckley and 26-year-old Mary Hayes. In their cases they had their children with them in the Poor Houses, and they were far from alone. It was not uncommon to have entire families admitted; for example all of Hannah Daley’s three children were in the Alms House with her.

It is important to recognise that going to the Poor House did not mean the end of the road for everyone. Some, like William Anderson, were there because of sickness or short-term/seasonal employment difficulties, and were expected to leave soon. But prospects of escape reduced for the elderly, the permanently disabled or the gravely ill. The record of Daniel Keller stated bluntly that the 30 year-old “will die here.” Each of these portraits has its own story to tell, and it is often a sad one. They serve to remind us that many thousands of Midleton people through history lived out their lives not in East Cork, but formed part of Irish emigrant communities around the globe, just as they continue to do today. You can explore each of the individuals researched in more detail below, where they arranged in alphabetical order by surname.

The New York Alms House Buildings on Blackwell’s Island (New York Public Library Record ID 706081)

The New York Alms House Buildings on Blackwell’s Island, where a number of the Midleton emigrants discussed below found themselves (New York Public Library Record ID 706081)

Mary Ahearn, Midleton. Admitted to Westchester County Poor House on 3rd March 1892. 

Mary was a 24-year-old single woman when she was admitted. She had arrived in New York from Ireland four years previously. Both her parents were from Midleton, where her father had been a laborer. Mary was a domestic, and could read and write. The cause of her dependence was that she was pregnant. It was felt that she may recover from her dependency.

William Anderson, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 13th December 1880.

William was a 37-year-old widower when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York from Ireland ten years previously and was a naturalized citizen. Both his parents had been from Midleton, and William, like his father, was a laborer. He was able to read and write. William was admitted due to chills and a fever, but was able to carry out light work. He was expected to leave the institution soon.

James Barry, Midleton. Admitted to Seneca County Poor House on 8th January 1891.

James was a 51-year-old single man on his admission. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 24 years previously, and was now naturalized. He worked as a laborer, as had his father- both his parents were also Midleton natives. He had a common school education. The cause of his dependence was “intemperance.” He was deemed capable of light work, but not to a great extent, and it was noted that he “should take care of himself and probably will soon.”

Margaret Barry, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 25th August 1875.

Margaret was a 30-year-old single woman when she was admitted. She had arrived in New York 22 years previously from Ireland. Both her parents had also been born in Midleton; her father had worked as a tailor. Margaret herself worked as a domestic, and was unable to read or write. The cause of her dependence was near blindness. Unable to perform work of any kind, it was determined that she would remain permanently dependent.

Patrick Barry, Midleton. Admitted to Wayne County Poor House on 11th December 1884.

Patrick was a 50-year-old widower when he was admitted. He had arrived into Canada from Ireland 37 years before, and had been in New York for 20 years. He was a naturalized citizen and worked as a laborer; his father had been a carpenter. He had four children still living. The reason for his dependence was that he had injured one of his eyes, but he was able to carry out light work. It was expected that he would recover.

Patrick Barry, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 14th January 1887.

Patrick was a 71-year-old married man when he was admitted. He was a naturalized citizen of the United States, having emigrated 44 years previously, landing in New York. Both his parents were also from Midleton; his father had been a tailor. Patrick himself worked as a stevedore. He had one brother and one sister, both of whom still lived in Ireland. Patrick also had a son of his own in New York. The cause of his dependence was given as homelessness and destitution. He was deemed able to carry out light labor, but it was deemed doubtful that he would ever recover from his dependency.

Michael Barry, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 7th January 1889.

Michael was a 43-year-old widower when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 20 years previously and was a naturalized citizen. Both his parents had been born in Midleton, where his father had been a laborer. Michael himself was a shoemaker; he was able to read and could “write a little.” Of his siblings, one brother was dead and one was still in Ireland, while he had four sisters in Ireland and one in New York. Michael also had three sons of his own. He had spent time in an institution before, in Mount Loretto on Staten Island. The reason for his dependency was given as paralysis, homelessness and destitution. He was deemed incapable of pursuing any labor, and it was thought doubtful he would ever recover from his dependency.

Patrick Brown, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 1st April 1886.

Patrick was a 70-year-old widower when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 30 years previously, and was now naturalized. Both his parents had been from Midleton, where Patrick’s father had been a laborer. Patrick was himself a carpenter, and was able to read and write. He had three children still living. The reason for Patrick’s dependence was old age and infirmity. Two year prior to his admission he had spent time with the Little Sisters of the Poor, but was discharged from there because of his “disobedience of orders.” It was thought probable that he would remain dependent.

Mary Buckley, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 16th November 1885.

Mary was a 23-year-old single woman when she was admitted. She had landed in New York three years before. Both her parents were also from Midleton, where her father had been a father. Mary worked as a domestic. She had one child, who was with her in the Alms House; the child was the reason for her admission, which was given as “bastardy.” She was able to carry out chamber work while in the Alms House. She had previously spent time in Kings County Hospital, and it was noted that “this young woman has stated particulars of her case to the Commissioners.” It was felt that she may recover from her dependence.

Margaret Carroll, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 10th April 1882.

Margaret was a 50-year-old single woman when she was admitted. She had arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia from Ireland some 33 years before. Her parents, who were both described as having been “intemperate”, had been from Carrigtohill. Her father had worked as a laborer- Margaret was a peddler. The cause of her dependence was given as an old fracture of the left arm, being nearly blind in the left eye, and “disorderly conduct.” Her habits were also described as intemperate. She had previously relied on charity twice and been admitted to Bellevue Hospital once. Her future was deemed “doubtful.”

Charles M. Carter, Midleton. Admitted to St. Lawrence County Poor House on 10th January 1878.

Charles was a 65-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had landed in Boston 31 years before, and was now naturalized. His father had been a farmer in Ireland. Charles was able to read, but apparently not to write. No further information was provided.

John Coleburt (Colbert), Midleton. Admitted to Chemung County Poor House on 5th November 1879.

John was a 63-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York 20 years before, and was naturalized. He was a laborer like his father before him, and like his father was also described as intemperate. The cause of his dependence was having no work. He had received three weeks of Out-Door Relief. It was felt he had a good chance of recovery- as he was a state charge he was going to be sent to the state Alms House.

Mary Collins, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 24th September 1895.

Mary was a 60-year-old widow when she was admitted. She had landed in New York 43 years previously. Her father had been a laborer in Ireland, Mary worked as domestic in New York. Mary had no education, and had two children still living. No reason was given for her dependence; her daughter’s address was given as 128 Cherry St.

John Connell, Midleton. Admitted to Orange County Poor House on 2nd December 1886.

John was a 47-year-old married man when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York 25 years before from Ireland, and was a naturalized citizen. John worked as a laborer, as his father had before him. The reason for his dependence was given as destitution; he had been in the Poor House the previous winter for the same reason. He was deemed to be unable to undertake any labour, but it was though probable that he would be able to leave again once the spring had arrived.

John Conners, Midleton. Admitted to Orange County Poor House on 7th October 1879.

John was a 41-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York 26 years before and was now naturalized. He had a common school education, and like his father worked as a laborer. The cause of his dependence was his inability to get work. It was determined that he would recover.

Ann Corcoran, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 24th July 1883.

Ann was 70-years-old on her admission. She was married, and had arrived in New York 20 years before from Ireland. Both Ann’s parents had been born in Midleton, where her father had been a farmer. Ann was able to read but not to write. She had no children but did have a brother in Boston. The cause of her dependence was homelessness, destitution, and bruising to her face caused by a fall. She had already been in an institution three times previously, and she was deemed as having little prospect of recovering from her dependence.

Hannah Daley, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 29th December 1885.

Hannah was a 37-year-old married woman when she was admitted. She had arrived in New York 7 1/2 years previously. Her parents had both been from Midleton, where her father was a farmer. Hannah could read and write, and was a housewife. She had three children, all of whom were with her in the Alms House. The cause of her dependence was destitution due to her husband being out of work. It was thought that she may recover.

Jeremiah Daly, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 15th December 1880.

Jeremiah was a 32-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York 11 years previously. Both his parents were from Midleton; like his father, Jeremiah was a laborer. He was able to read and write. The cause of his dependency was rheumatism, and he was able to undertake light work. It was expected that he would soon be able to leave.

Cath Donnovan, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 25th September 1877.

Cath was 26-years-old when she was admitted. She was married, and had arrived in New York 13 years previously from Ireland. Her father had been a laborer, Cath herself was a servant. She could read, but not write. Cath had two children, one of whom was in the hospital and the other who was with her in the Alms House. She was dependent because her husband had deserted the family. She had previously spent four weeks in hospital in 1877. Cath was able to contribute towards her own support in the Alms House through nursing, and it was deemed probable that she would recover from her dependency.

John Donovan, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 22nd September 1884.

John was a 64-year-old widower when admitted. He had been in the United States for 30 years. Both his parents had been from Midleton, and John, like his father, was a laborer. He could read and write and had two living children. The reason for his dependency was old age and infirmity- he had spent time in Kings County Hospital four years previously. His prospects for leaving were classed as “doubtful.”

Michael Fitzgerald, Midleton. Admitted to Westchester County Poor House on 17th November 1896.

Michael was a 43-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 17 years before and was naturalized. He was able to read, and worked as a Rock Man. His father had been a laborer. His mother was still alive, and he had three brothers. The cause of his dependence was sickness, and at the time he was not able to work. It was thought that he may recover from his dependence.

William Foley, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 26th December 1883.

William was 60-years-old when he was admitted. He was a widower, who had arrived in New York 16 years previously and was now naturalized. Both his parents had been born in Midleton, where his father had worked as a laborer. WIlliam was a shoemaker, and was able to read and write. He had sisters who lived in New York, and one son, William, who was 24-years-old and was then at sea. The cause of his dependence was homelessness, destitution and having no work. He was able to pursue shoemaking while in the Almshouse, and it was thought likely that he would recover from his dependence.

Mary Hayes, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 20th April 1877.

Mary was a 26-year-old single woman when she was admitted. She had arrived in New York from Ireland 12 years previously. Bother her parents were from Midleton, and her father had worked as a blacksmith. Mary was a servant who was able to read and write. She had one child living, who was with her in the Alms House. The cause of her dependence was given as “bastardy”, and during her time there she was able to work at nursing. She had previously spent three months in hospital in 1877, and it was felt that she would recover from her dependency.

James Herin, Midleton. Admitted to Putnam County Poor House on 5th February 1885.

James was a 70-year-old married man when admitted. He had landed in New York 50 years previously, and was a naturalized citizen. His father had also been from Midleton, and like James had been a laborer. He had no education, and also like his father, James was described as intemperate. He had seven children still living. The cause of his dependency was old age and lack of employment, and he was unable to do much work. It was felt he would probably not recover, and the following was added: “This man was brought here from Phillips town is quite feeble has worked in the west point foundry for nearly fifty years the probability is that he will remain a county charge as long as he lives.”

Michael Humphrey, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 11th December 1877.

Michael was a 38-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 25 years previously, and was now naturalized. Both his parents had been born in Midleton, and his father had worked as a blacksmith. Michael was also a blacksmith, and was able to read and write. The cause of his dependence was a sore leg, and at the time he was unable to work. It was felt that he would likely recover.

John Hyde, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 2nd January 1885.

John was a 56-year-old widower when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 35 years before, and was a naturalized citizen. His parents were both from Midleton, where his father had been a farmer. John was a laborer, and was described as intemperate. He had no education and had three living children. The reason for his dependence was given as intemperance. He was able to work, and it was felt that he may be able to recover.

Mary C Keefe, Midleton. Admitted to Saratoga County Poor House on 26th November 1889.

Mary was a 65-year-old widow when admitted. She had only been in the United States for a year and three months. Although she was born in Midleton, her parents were from Co. Waterford (her mother from Newtown). Her father had been a steward. Mary had no education, and was engaged in housework. She had two children living. The reason for her dependence was destitution. She was unable to do any work, and had previously received a few days of relief. No opinion was offered on her prospects for recovery.

Daniel Keller, Midleton. Admitted to Greene County Poor House on 10th August 1915.

Daniel was a 30-year-old single man when admitted. He had been born on Christmas Day 1884. Daniel had arrived in New York 8 years before, but was not naturalized. Both his parents were from Midleton, and he had a common school education. He worked as a laborer. The cause of his dependence was sickness. He had previously been to hospital and was a county charge. With respect to his probable destiny, it was noted that he “will die here.”

Ellen Kelley, Midleton. Admitted to Saratoga County Poor House on 25th January 1887.

Ellen was a 70-year-old widow when she was admitted. She had arrived in Quebec from Ireland 55 years before, and had made her way straight to New York. Her parents were both from Cork, and her father was from Midleton. He had worked as a shoemaker. Ellen had carried out housework, and she had no education. The reasons given for her dependence was destitution. It was thought probable that she would remain dependent.

Daniel Leahey, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 18th January 1883.

Daniel was a 50-year-old married man on his admission. He emigrated to New York 30 years previously. Both his parents and been from Midleton, where his father was a peddler. Daniel was a tanner, and was able to read and write. He had two sons still living. The reason for Daniel’s dependency was destitution, and a fracture of the hip which left him lame. He was able to carry out light labour. Daniel had previously spent time in Bellevue Hospital- it was felt that he would likely recover from his dependence.

Michael Leahy, Midleton. Admitted to Westchester County Poor House on 11th September 1894.

Michael was a 53-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had emigrated to New York 27 years before, and was now naturalized. He was a laborer like his father before him, and was able to read and write. The cause of his dependency was sickness, and at that time he was unable to work. He had spent some time in an institution before, and it was felt that he “may recover.”

George Lee, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 2nd December 1880.

George was a 38-year-old single man when admitted. He had emigrated to New York 6 years before, and was naturalized. Both his parents had been from Midleton, where his father had been a boot and shoe maker. George was a laborer, and was able to read and write. The cause of his dependence was “fever and ague” and George was able to undertake light work. He had previously spent 10 days in hospital. It was expected that he would recover from his dependency and be able to leave the Alms House soon.

James Lenden, Midleton. Admitted to Yates County Poor House on 2nd November 1885.

James was a 45-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had been in the United States for 20 years, and was a naturalized citizen. Both his parents were from Midleton, where James had received a common school education. His father had been a laborer, as was James. He had two brothers. The cause of James’s dependence was intemperance. He was able to work, but his outlook was bleak, as it was anticipated that he would remain dependent.

Eliza Maher, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 16th July 1883.

Eliza was a 70-year-old widow when she was admitted. She had emigrated to New York 17 years before. Both her parents had been born in Midleton, where her father had been a steward. Eliza had no occupation and no education and did not have any living children. The cause of her dependence was destitution, and four years prior to her 1883 admission she had relied on the charity of the Little Sisters of the Poor. She was given no chance of recovering her independence, with it deemed probable she would remain dependent.

Hannah Mahony, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 28th June 1876.

Hannah was a 60-year-old widow on admission. She had emigrated to New York from Ireland 43 years previously. Both her parents were from Midleton, where her father had been a Master Hostler. Hannah was a servant, and was able to read but could not write. The cause of her dependence was old age and rheumatism. Hannah was able to carry out needle work. She had been in and out of the Alms House for 8 years, and in and out of hospital over the same period. It was anticipated that she would remain dependent.

Charles McCarthy, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 18th August 1894.

Charles was 51-years-old when he was admitted. He was married, and had emigrated to New York 47 years before. Now a naturalized citizen, both his parents had also been born in Midleton. His father had been a farmer, Charles himself worked as a peddler. He had at least one child, but was now dependent as a result of blindness. He had previously received $37 from the City, and had spent time in Bellevue and Presbyterian Hospitals. The probability of him ever escaping from dependency was described as “hopeless.”

Michael McCarthy, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 6th January 1899.

Michael was a 59-year-old widower on admission. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 33 years previously, and was now a naturalized citizen. Michael followed his father’s profession of tailoring, and he was able to read and write. He had two brothers living in the United States and one sister in Ireland. He also had two sons still living, both of whom worked as laborers and lived at 371 Broome St; James, who was single, and Charles, who was married. The cause of his dependence was destitution. He was able to carry out ordinary work, and had spent time in hospital the previous November. It was thought that he would probably recover.

Eliza Mead, Midleton. Admitted to Kingston City Alms House on 22nd November 1886.

Eliza was a single woman of about 46 when she was admitted. She had been in the United States some 28 years. Her parents had both been from Midleton, where her father was a farmer. Eliza was a seamstress who could read but not write. The reason for her dependence was that she had no home. She was able to carry out sewing work, but despite that it was deemed likely that she would probably remain dependent.

Mary Murphy, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 3rd November 1887.

Mary was a 60-year-old widow on her admission. She had landed in New York from Ireland 35 years previously. Both her parents were from Midleton, where her father had been a farmer. Mary had no education and worked as a domestic. Her brothers (who lived in the U.S.) and sisters (who lived in Ireland) were all dead. The cause of her dependence was debility, homelessness and destitution. She was unable to work, and had spent time in Bellevue Hospital. It was deemed likely she would remain permanently dependent.

John Murray, Midleton. Admitted to Westchester Alms House on 8th November 1890.

John was a 60-year-old widower when he was admitted. He had arrived in the United States 30 years before. His parents were also from Midleton; John, like his father before him was a laborer. The cause of his dependence was that he had been a vagrant for the previous 6 months. He was capable of light work, but it was thought he would likely not recover from his dependency.

Richard Nugent, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 31st October 1878.

Richard was a 69-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had come to New York 50 years before, and was a naturalized citizen. Both his parents had been born in Midleton, where his father had been a laborer. Richard had no education, and worked as a carman. The reason for his admission was given as heart disease and destitution. unable to work, his potential for escaping dependency in the future was described as “doubtful.”

John D. O’Brien, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 4th December 1894.

John was a 42-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had emigrated to New York 25 years previously, and was now a naturalized citizen. His parents had been from Cork, where his father had been a laborer. John had a school education and had risen to become an engineer. He had three brothers and three sisters. The cause of his dependence was paralysis and destitution. He had previously spent time in Randall’s Island Hospital and it was thought that he may recover.

Michael Pomfrey, Midleton. Admitted to Kings County Alms House on 28th January 1881.

Michael was a 42-year-old single man when he was admitted. He had landed in New York 20 years before and was now a naturalized citizen. Both his parents had been from Midleton, where his father had been a horse shoer, the same trade that Michael followed. Michael was able to read and write. The cause of his dependence was a sore leg, as a result of which he was unable to work. He had previously spent three weeks in hospital, and he expected to leave the Alms House as soon as his leg was well.

William Ronan, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 13th December 1881.

William was a 59-year-old married man when he was admitted. He had emigrated from Ireland 16 years previously. Both his parents had been from Midleton, where his father had been a fisherman. William, who could read and write, worked as a laborer. His brothers and sisters were still in Ireland. He had four living children but did not know where they were. The reasons for his dependence were paralysis of the right side and destitution. He was unable to work, and had spent time more than four months and 9 days in various homes and in Bellevue Hospital. His future was deemed doubtful.

John Shanahan, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 19th April 1895.

John was a 65-year-old widower when he was admitted. He had arrived in New York from Ireland 45 years before, and was now a naturalized citizen. Both his parents had been from Midleton, where his father had been a shoemaker. John, who could read and write, followed in the same trade as his father. He had one daughter living, who was in the Home of the Good Shepherd. Te reason for John’s dependence was destitution. He was able for only light work, but his future prospects were deemed favourable.

Thomas Sullivan, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 14th November 1887.

Thomas was a 43-year-old married man on admission. He arrived in New York 20 years previously and was a naturalized citizen. Both his parents had been from Midleton, and Thomas, like his father before him, was a laborer. He had two sons a daughter, who were apparently living in Pennsylvania. The reason for his admission was homelessness, destitution and partial blindness. He was unable to work, and had previously spent time in Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. It was thought that he would recover from his dependence.

Mary Welsh, Midleton. Admitted to New York City Alms House on 1st May 1888.

Mary was a 90-year-old widow when she was admitted. She had emigrated from Ireland 30 years before. Her parents had both been from Midleton, where her father had been a farmer. Mary had no education, and worked as a housekeeper. The cause of her dependence was debility, homelessness and destitution. She could do no work, and had previously been in a Charity Hospital, from where she had been taken to the Alms House. It was considered likely she would remain permanently dependent.

These are far from the only people with Midleton connections who ended up in these institutions; indeed it is likely only a small sample. Others who are known but for whom records were not accessible include Daniel Cunningham, who was around 49 years-old when he was admitted in 1897, and Maggie Ford, who was 38 when she was admitted in 1897. Many more people with a parent from Midleton ultimately found themselves reliant on charity.

Inmates of the Poor House on Randall’s Island, East River, New York, forming in line for dinner, 1875 (New York Public Library Record ID 692408)

Inmates of the Poor House on Randall’s Island, East River, New York, forming in line for dinner, 1875 (New York Public Library Record ID 692408)

References

New York. State Bord of Charities. Census of Inmates in Almshouses and Poorhouses, 1835-1921. series A1978. Microfilm 225 rolls. New York State Archives, Albany, New York. Accessed via ancestry.com

NYPL Digital Gallery Record ID 692408

NYPL Digital Gallery Record ID 706081

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