Though it is a title and name we associate most with Co. Clare, between the 17th and 19th centuries the seat of the Inchiquin O’Briens was Rostellan Castle on the shores of Cork Harbour. As we covered in Part 1 of the series, Murrough O’Brien, Lord Inchiquin, was the first of his family to take control of Rostellan in the 17th century. In this post we will explore all the O’Briens who possessed Rostellan, with particular reference their interactions with the Castle and its demense, many of which remain imprinted on the landscape today.
Murrough O’Brien (c. 1616 – 1674), 6th Baron and 1st Earl of Inchiquin
Made Rostellan Castle his principal residence in Ireland, spending time there during the 1660s and 1670s.
Murrough, known to history as “Murchadh na dTóiteán” (Murrough of the Burnings), was the first of the O’Briens to make Rostellan Castle his home. Though his forces had briefly taken Rostellan following the 1645 siege, it was not until the restoration of Charles II that he lived there for any duration. Raised a Protestant, he earned his nickname for his ruthless prosecution of the war in the 1640s against Catholic Irish Confederates and civilians. Among his most notable victories during the conflict were at Liscarroll in 1642 and Knocknanuss in 1647, where he effectively destroyed the Confederate Army of Munster. His shifting allegiances during that period generally centred around a pursuit of his best interests and those of Munster Protestants. Though he moved to support Parliament in 1644, he maintained Royalist leanings and in 1648 he switched sides again. Cromwell’s victory in 1650 forced him into exile on the continent with other Royalists. He spent much of that decade as the French appointed Governer of Catalonia, and he converted to Catholicism in 1657. He had his son were captured by Algerian Corsairs in 1660, and the newly restored monarchy had to pay a ransom for his release. He spent much of the late 1660s and early 1670s managing his lands in Cork and Clare, the period when he was most frequently resident at Rostellan. At his death in 1674 he requested that he be buried in St. Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick, long associated with the O’Briens. His infamous reputation among Irish Catholics for his actions during the 1640s have insured that he remains the most famed and notorious of Rostellan’s residents.
See John A Murhy, “O’Brien, Murrogh”, Dictionary of Irish Biography.
William O’Brien (c. 1640 – 1692), 2nd Earl of Inchiquin
Spent time at Rostellan Castle in the 1670s and 1680s.
Murrough’s son William succeeded to the Earldom following his father’s death (prior to which he was known as Lord O’Brien). Imprisoned in the Tower of London as a child by the Parliamentarians. He served with his father in Catalonia, and remained a Protestant after his father’s conversion. William lost an eye when he and his father were captured by the Algerian corsairs in 1660. Appointed to the Irish Privy Council in 1671, in 1674 he became the Governor of Tangier and Captain General of the King’s Forces there, a post he held for a number of years. While living at Rostellan in 1688 he decided to support William of Orange in the “Glorious Revolution”; but his attempts to raise troops in Cork against James II failed and he was forced to flee to England in 1689. There William III appointed him Governor of Jamaica, where he organised the colony to repel a French attack and put down a rebellion of some of those who were enslaved on the island. He died of disease in Jamaica in early 1691 and was buried there.
See Elaine Murphy, “O’Brien, William”, Dictionary of Irish Biography.
William O’Brien (c. 1666 – 1719), 3rd Earl Inchiquin
Appears to have spent as much time as possible at Rostellan Castle, and was responsible for the early development of the estate, the impact of which is still visible on the landscape.
Surviving correspondence from the 3rd Earl places him frequently at Rostellan Castle throughout his life. He regarded it as his principal country residence in Ireland. Like his father he had declared for William III, and had served in the army for him in both Ireland and Flanders. He became Governor of Kinsale in 1693, served as a Privy Councillor, and was Mayor of Kilkenny in 1704-5. He spent considerable sums trying to improve Rostellan, beginning landscape alterations that have fundamentally altered the landscape we see today. In January 1701 he told Queen Anne that:
at a considerable expense he had prevented the tide from overflowing a parcel of land adjoining to his house at Rostellan, which would be an advantage to the harbour of Cork for small vessels and boats, if a quay was made there, and desiring her Majesty to grant to him and his heirs the said ground, containing about 150 acres; and that his manor at Rostellan might be created into a corporation, with the liberty of a Wednesday market and two fairs, on the 25 March and 15 August; free warren and park, and liberty to inclose 500 acres, paying the yearly rent of 6s 8d. The Queen complied with his request, and granting the same by patent, 20 April, 1708, he built a quay at Farset [Farsid], a place well situated for all the trade advantages of Ireland.
The works he references were the beginnings of the extensive walling and damming that created significant landscape modifications around Rostellan, most notably Rostellan Lake, which up to that point had been tidal. All this cost a lot of money. In 1708 one of his confidants and chief tenants at Rostellan wrote to Sir Donat O’Brien in Dromoland:
my unfortunate l[or]d is still ruining himself-he’ll doe it in spight of all mankinde-he has now a great house and families in Dublin, and, I am sure, the expence here [Rostellan] is not much less…
The same correspondent was similarly concerned about the vast amount of finances being put into Rostellan by the 3rd Earl in 1710:
L[or]d Inchiquin is now att Rostellan…as buesie as ever, building &c; there neaver will be an end. God help him…
The 3rd Earl died at Rostellan on 24th Devember 1719, having laboured “many years under the gout”. He was buried in Cloyne Cathedral.
See Donough O’Brien “History of the O’Briens”; John Ainsworth (ed.) “The Inchiquin Manuscripts”; John Lodge & Mervyn Archdall “The Peerage of Ireland: or A Genealogical History of the Present Nobility of that Kingdom”, Volume 2.
William O’Brien (1700 – 1777), 4th Earl of Inchiquin
Continued and improved on his father’s work on the Rostellan estate, transforming it into an extravagant demensne landscape, the masonry remnants of which survive today. He also constructed a new house on the site of the old Rostellan Castle.
The 4th Earl spent much of his time in England, but invested considerable sums in making his Rostellan estate the fitting home for someone of his stature. In Cork, he founded the Water Club of Cork Harbour in 1720, the predecessor of the Royal Cork Yacht Club. He also served as Governor of Clare from 1741 to 1777, and was a Member of the Privy Council of Ireland from 1753. Closely connected to the House of Hanover, he was among the first to be made a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1725 when it was created by George I, and he was Lord of the Bedchamber to Frederick, Prince of Wales between 1744 and 1751. Having served in the Irish House of Lords in 1721, he held a seat as the Whig Member of Parliament for Windsor (1722-27), Tamworth (1727-34), Camelford (1741-7) and Aylesbury (1747-54). The presence of a speech impediment meant that he avoided speaking in the House where possible. The 4th Earl was also the Grandmaster of the Freemasons of England in 1740-1. He was apparently an eager supporter of the work of antiqurians and early historians, something that may have played a role in the lavish landscape works he undertook at Rostellan, replete with crenallations and follies. He died at Rostellan on 18th July 1777 and was buried in Cloyne Cathedral.
The 4th Earl’s lengthy absences from the Rostellan estate are indicated by documents such as his 6th September 1723 lease to Andrew Nason of Rostellan, which also includes an extremely extensive early description of the area:
Lease by William, Earl of Inchiquin, to Andrew Nason of Rostellan in the barony of Imokelly, Co. Cork, gent., of the following lands and tenements: the demesne lands of Rostellan, bounded on the W. with that part called “the long meadow old towne & Garetone,” S. with Jackson’s farm, E. with the Whitewell Middleton road, and N. with “the slobb or channell”; “the Millbog” lately held by Michael Gould, esq., bounded W. by the said road, S. by the lands of Ballymoleene, E. by that part of the bog now held by John Longfield, esq., “where the new road was designed to be made,” and N. by the said road; another part of Rostellan lately held by Goold, bounded S. with the channel or slob, E. by the said road, N. by the road from Rostellan masshouse to a gate on James Brooke’s land, and W. by a ditch leading from the said gate to the slob (reserving to Inchiquin the house in which William Coursey lives, the mill with the miller’s house and garden, and a house held by Jeremy Cashman); certain meadows and other lands, part of Rostellan, now held by Nason, bounded W. with James Hamilton’s holdings, S. with the Crocane road, E. with John Longfield’s holding, and N. with the Cloyne road (reserving “all the houses and gardens scituat hereon only one house wch. stands in the middle of this land and the house or houses lately built by the said Andrew Nason” and a small meadow at the back of the tenants’ gardens); the marsh or slob called “the Fossett land” taken in from the sea, bounded W. with the dam or bank, S. by the lands of Knockanemoney, E. by a ditch from Rostellan wood to Mrs Jackson’s holding (reserving that part of the marsh between Mrs. Browne’s house and the Lough). To hold Posset’s lands and the other lands to the E. of James Hamilton’s house for 20 years; the remainder for 20 years if Inchiquin or his heirs do not come to live in the mansion house of Rostellan, otherwise for 13 years. Rent £122.10., with 12d. in £ receiver’s fees, and a fat mutton or 5/- at Michaelmas, a couple of fat capons or 2/6 at Christmas, and 7 labourers and 7 horses “wth. proper carriages” or 7/6 yearly; these duties, except the last, to be at Inchiquin’s election. Nason to do suit and service at the manor courts of Rostellan; to give notice of making any ditches; and to pay £5 for breach of any covenant in the lease. Inchiquin to have the option of finishing the avenue begun on the lands, allowing in this case 1o/- to Nason for every plantation acre taken from him; and to keep in repair the dam or bank on the Fossett lands.
Maintaining the dam begun by his father at the “Fossett Lands” [presumably Farsid] is a direct reference to the dam (now road) which created Rostellan Lake.
See John Ainsworth (ed.) “The Inchiquin Manuscripts”; John Lodge & Mervyn Archdall “The Peerage of Ireland: or A Genealogical History of the Present Nobility of that Kingdom”, Volume 2.
Murrough O’Brien (1726 – 1808), 5th Earl of Inchiquin, 1st Marquess of Thomond
Reportedly added further to the Castle. He appears to have resided predominantly in England, visiting his Cork estates periodicially.
The 4th Earl died without a survivng male heir, and so his title-and Rostellan Castle-passed to his nephew Murrough. The 5th Earl divided his time between Rostellan and his London residence, 39 Grosvenor Place. Born in 1726, he had reportedly held a commission with the Grenadier Guards in Germany and fought at the 1747 Battle of Lauffeld. Having served in the Irish House of Commons in the 1750s and 1760s, he was returned as Member of Parliament for Richmond in 1784. In 1783 he had become one of the first Knights of the Most Illustrious Order of St. Patrick. He was created 1st Marquess of Thomond in 1800, and Baron Thomond in 1801. He was apparently close to King George III- the following incident demonstrates the seriousness with which he took royal etiquette:
An unpleasant occurence took place on the 2d of August , as their Majesties were walking on Windsor Terrace. The company was not so select as usual; many persons were turned off, being in a state of intoxication. The Marquis of Thomond, who was walking near their Majesties, seeing a person not uncovered while the King was passing, stepped up to him, and took off his hat; the man struck the Marquis and kicked him. He was immediately secured by the police officers, and kept in custody till their Majesties went off the terrace, when he was examined by Colonel Desbrow. He stated, that he had taken his hat off while his Majesty passed, and did not put it on again till his Majesty had retired ten paces. He was reprimanded and set at liberty.
The Marquis’s brother, Edward O’Brien, who served in the Royal Navy, died at Rostellan Castle in 1801 and had apparently been “brought up there”. He had joined the Naval service in 1747, and reputedly endured wrecking four times: off the coast of India, off the Cape of Good Hope (twice) and with HMS Darmouth in action. The Marquis’s himself passed away on 8th February 1808, a result of a fall from his horse in London.
See Donough O’Brien “History of the O’Briens”; Edward Holt “The Public and Domestic Life of His Late Most Gracious Majesty, George the Third”, Volume 2.
William O’Brien (1765 – 1846), 6th Earl of Inchiquin, 2nd Marquess of Thomond
Predominanty resident in England, but undertook high-profile visits to his estate at Rostellan throughout his tenure. Atttempted to update elements of the Castle in the gothic style.
The 1st Marquess having died without a living male heir, the title passed to his nephew, William O’Brien of Ennistymon. He beame a Privy Councillor and Knight of the Order of St. Patrick in 1809, and Baron Tadcaster in 1826. Though the 2nd Marquess spent the majority of his time in England, he continued to visit Rostellan for periods throughout his life, occasionally hosting grand events. On 13th October 1830 The Morning Post reported one such occasion, when the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the 3rd Duke of Northumberland, stayed at Rostellan:
We announced in our last number that his Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant, the Duchess of Northumberland and suite, had arrived on the preceding day at Rostellan, the seat of the Marquis of THomond, where he was waited on by the Mayor and Sheriffs of the City, to congraluate him on his arrival, and to invite him to receive the address of the inhabitants, to which his Excellency graciously assented, and fixed this day for his visit.
On Thursday morning, Admiral Sir Charles Paget’s state barge, manned by the best of seamen, and commanded by Lieutenant Charles Witham, first of Semiramis, procceded to Rostellan Castle, where the Vice-Regal party embarked, amidst a royal salute from the batteries, and the Semiramis, Orestes, and Pike, vessels of war. Shortly after the Vice-Regal barge bore up the bay, amidst the cheers of thousands assembled on the hills and on the beach at Cove…The entire of yesterday was also spent in sailing about the harbour and river…In the evening the party returned to Rostellan Castle.
During much of this time the Rostellan estate was left in the stewardship of Alexander McNab, a Scotsman who farmed several hundred acres of the demesne. He held traditional Scottish Harvest Home celebrations for his workers during the 1840s. The Marquess’s agent lived in Maryland House- in 1848 that was Joseph Haynes. Despite the hardships the country was experincing during the Great Famine, reports of visits by the Marquess to his Rostellan holdings attempted to paint a portrait of an overjoyed tenantry, only too eager to come out and perform for their landlord. The Warder and Dublin Weekly Mail of 2nd September 1848 reported one such scene at Rostellan:
The workmen on his lordship’s estate erected triumphal arches in the demsne, under which the marquis and marchioness were to pass. The gateway was ornamented with laurels and flowers, and over this “the Union Jack” proudly waved. Under the flag-staff was the motto, Cead mille failthe. At the hour appointed, several hundred of his lordship’s tenantry arrived and formed in procession along the demesne two deep. They were a remarkably respectable body of men, many of them highly intelligent and wealthy farmers, of whom any nobleman might be proud. At half-past twelve o’clock, the marquis entered his demesne, accompanied by the marchioness, Mrs. Haynes, and Mr. Haynes. On the arrival of his lordship and lady, the procession opened, and his lordship passed through, the tenantry saluting. Reaching the castle gate, the horses were taken from the pheaton, and her ladyship, accompanied by Mr. Haynes, Mrs. Haynes, and Miss Gillespie, took their plances on the handsome balcony over the entrance to the castle. The Rev. J.P. Pyne, Rector of Inch, came forward, and presented a grateful and loyal address of congratulation, to which his lordship returned an appropriate reply and promised to give 100l. to the poor of Aghada and its neighbourhood. The business of the day having been brought to a close, her ladyship called for Mr. McNab, the steward, and directed him to procure music that she might see some Irish jigs and reels. Instantly the piper was procured, and he lilted up the “Wind that shakes the Barley” to which two young women and a young man gaily danced away. No person could have enjoyed the merry scene with more pleasure than her ladyship. After several dances, the marquis called for a “horn pipe,” when a strapping, handsome lad, about six feet high. perdormed the dance with singular eclat. The marquis and marchioness, having again expressed their thanks for the compliment paid to them, drove from the demesne and through the village.
See Donough O’Brien “History of the O’Briens”.
James O’Brien (1769 – 1855), 7th Earl of Inchiquin, 3rd Marquess of Thomond
The last of the O’Briens of Rostellan Castle.
James was William’s brother, and succeeded to the title-and to Rostellan-when William died in 1846. He had spent his career in the Royal Navy, entering as a Captain’s Servant aboard HMS Hebe in 1783. He served as a Midshipman aboard the frigates HMS Pegasus and HMS Andromeda off North America and in the West Indies between 1786 and 1789, under the command of Prince William Henry, later King William IV. He was promoted to Lieutenant and next saw service on HMS Valiant in the Channel fleet. There followed stints on HMS London, HMS Artois, HMS Active, and HMS Brunswick; on the latter he fought in the 1795 naval engagement known as “Cornwallis’s Retreat” off Brittany. From the HMS Indefatigable he was given command of the sloop Childers, and in 1799 the Thisbe. From 1800 to 1804 he commanded HMS Emerald in the West Indies, and in 1803 captured the French schooner L’Enfant Prodigue. He next briefly led HMS Diadem, then between 1813 and 1815 HMS Warspite. He was made a Rear-Admiral in 1825, a Vice-Admiral in 1837, full Admiral in 1847, and Admiral of the Fleet in 1853. He had become Lord of the Bedchamber in 1830 when his old Captain, William IV, ascended to the throne.
When the 3rd Marquess had come into possession of Rostellan in 1846 he decided that he would not make it his home, and immediately delcared his intention to sell the estate and stay in England. However this sale didn’t go ahead; Irish newspapers in 1848 reported on the celebrations when he and the Marchioness visited his Irish estate. However, the long O’Brien assocation with Rostellan Castle did come to a close on with his death in 1855. With no heir, both the Marquessate of Thomond and Earldom of Inchiquin became extinct, and the Barony of Inchiquin devolved to the O’Brien Baronets of Dromoland, Co. Clare.
See William Richard O’Byrne “A Naval Biographical Dictionary”; Donough O’Brien “History of the O’Briens”
Future posts will tell the story of Rostellan’s final owners from 1855 onwards, and explore some of the fascinating stories of the high-born women of Rostellan. In addition, there will be a detailed examination of the remaining fragments of this once impressive demensne landscape.