On Sunday last a Memorial Wall commemorating 200 men from East Cork who lost their lives during the First World War was unveiled at the Baby’s Walk in the town. Among those in attendance was Tánaiste Simon Coveney T.D., who delivered the main speech during the ceremony. Made of Portland stone, the memorial is extremely impressive, and a credit to the committee who conceived of the project and saw it through to completion. Below are three videos from the event, the first two contributions by two of the descendants of men remembered on the memorial, the final one the speech delivered by the Tánaiste.
On the site we have previously explored some of Midleton’s connections with the United States, and American military service. Probably our most influential discovery was the forgotten story of John Joseph Coppinger, as our research into him led to the naming and theming of Coppingers pub on Midleton’s Main Street. Though Coppinger is certainly Midleton’s most famous “forgotten” American serviceman, he is far from alone. This post takes a brief look at just three of many others from the area who entered American military service in the 19th century– one during the American Civil War, another immediately after that conflict, and one who served in both the American West and during the Spanish-American War.
John Quinn, 16th New York Cavalry, American Civil War
The American Civil War saw more Cork men fight and die in uniform than any other conflict in the county’s history, including the First World War. It is probable that the same is also true for Midleton men, and those from the immediate area. One of a number we have uncovered was John Quinn. John was born in East Cork around 1826. On 25th May 1845 he married 18-year-old Margaret Hennessy in Dromada, Castlemartyr, part of the parish of Midleton.
The couple went on to have at least two children, Margaret and Michael, both born in the early 1850s. They emigrated to New York and by the eve of the American Civil War were living in city of Troy, probably with other emigrants from East Cork. John enlisted in the 16th New York Cavalry on 10th August 1863 but illness soon caused him to be transferred to the Invalid Corps. He died in Alexandria, Virginia of chronic pneumonia on 11th February 1864. After John’s death, Margaret successfully applied for an American Military Pension based on her husband’s service. John’s resting place can today be found in Alexandria National Cemetery.
John J. Bransfield, USS Brooklyn, USS Ohio, USS Jaunita, Post Civil War
Born in Midleton, John was a 22-year-old sailmaker when he enlisted in the United States Navy in September 1870. His main service was aboard the famed sloop-of-war USS Brooklyn, and he spent his time deployed with her on her extended visit to Europe and the Mediterranean. John took ill while on the voyage, and while in Toulon, France was deemed unfit for service due to palpitations of the heart. He was discharged on 24th August 1872.
John received a pension for rheumatism and heart disease caused by his service. After leaving the navy he first lived at 140 Prince Street in Boston, and as was common, spent much of his time with other Midleton emigrants. Richard Morgan of Midleton remembered meeting him there when they worked together at the same employment. Eventually John returned to make his home on Midleton’s Main Street, where he spent the remainder of his life. He married Hannah Walsh on 7th November 1879; their son Maurice was born in 1880, and was followed by John in 1882, Dora in 1884 and Mary in 1885. John died in Cork’s North Infirmary on 12th November 1902 during an operation that was attempting to remove his kidney, and was buried in Midleton’s Holy Rosary Cemetery.
John Leahy, United States Marine Corps, Spanish-American War
John Leahy was born in Aghada around 1864, but his family ultimately made their home at No. 10 William Street (New Cork Road), Midleton. They would later move to No. 15. John had long service in the U.S. military. He was a 20-year-old labourer when he entered the 4th United States Cavalry in New York on 25th November 1887, serving in the American West with Company D. Discharged in 1891, he returned to the military in 1898 at Mare Island, California, when he re-enlisted in the United States Marine Corps. All the while John was sending money home to support his ageing parents in Midleton. During the Spanish-American War of 1898, John took part in some of the major actions of the conflict. He was a participant in the landing at Guantánamo, Cuba on 10th June 1898, the bombardment of Santiago de Cuba on 21st June and 2nd July 1898 and the destruction of Admiral Cervera’s fleet on 3rd July 1898.
John survived these engagements only to fall ill and die on 7th October 1900. He was interred at the Congressional Cemetery in Washington D.C. His parents William and Ellen, who had partially relied on John’s financial support, were entitled to seek a U.S. Government pension in Ellen’s name, as William was no longer able to work. She duly applied for it.
When seeking her pension, Ellen wrote from Midleton to the American Bureau of Pensions explaining her circumstances:
…my only outlook now is to look forward to the graciousness of the U.S. Government, as I was almost entirely dependent on my deceased son’s remittances to me, and my husband being unable to work owing to his advanced age, I now sadly miss my son’s remittances, owing to his untimely death in service to his adopted Country.
John wasn’t the only one of the Midleton Leahys in America. In fact his mother Ellen took the time in 1902 to explain to the American Government just where all her children were, and why they couldn’t support her:
(1) Michael Leahy (son) aged 40 years who is a Hospital Steward in [the] United States Army and is at present stationed at Angel Island, California…He is married and doing for himself and family and consequently is no help to me.
(2) Ellen Leahy (daughter) aged 37 years who is presumably in some part of the United States, but as she never writes home I have no account of her.
(3) Margaret Barry (daughter)…is wife of John Barry of Midleton County Cork Ireland. Her age in 1901 was 34 years.
(4) Mary White (daughter)…aged 31 years; wife of John White of Midleton County Cork Ireland.
(5) William Leahy (son); 28 years; is living with me at home.
(6) Kate Leahy (daughter); 26 years; is at present in some part of the United States.
(7) Patrick Leahy (son), 23 years, is living with me at home. [he suffered from fits]
(8) Annie Leahy (daughter), 20 years, is living with me at home.
My husband, William Leahy, aged 74 years is also alive an has never rendered any military or naval service. [he had worked as a labourer until he was 70, but was now too old to work for her support]
The impact of emigration in splitting families apart is readily apparent in Ellen’s account of her children. She and her husband provided lots of additional detail about their lives in their pension application, including the fact that they were renting their home on a weekly basis from Lord Midleton for a sum of one shilling and six pence. Other Midleton residents rallied around the couple to try and help them get a pension; among those who gave statements were Timothy O’Leary of 9 Railway Terrace, and Denis O’Keeffe of No. 19 William Street (New Cork Road). When Ellen herself fell ill, her daughter (and U.S. Marine John’s sister) Hannah Aherne, then living at No. 15 Cork Road, supplied receipts for her medical care to the U.S. Government, which are still preserved in Washington D.C. today. Among them is a bill from Doctor M.P. Desmond, which you can view below.
After Ellen’s death on 10th March 1919, Hannah also passed a copy of the funeral expenses on to America, preserving the details of the costs issued by Dr. Patrick D. Moore of 3 Broderick Street for the provision of, among other items, a coffin, bier and horses. Hannah was entitled to be repaid the costs for both her mother’s illness and funeral because Ellen had been a pensioner of the United States– even though she had never visited the country.
The stories of these three men and their families are some of the thousands from East Cork that were created as a result of the mass emigration from the locality in the 19th and 20th centuries. That emigration led many to the service of the United States military, and unfortunately for some, it led to their deaths. We hope in the future to share more similar stories of Midleton and East Cork emigrants on the site.
This post would not have been possible were it not for the efforts of the National Archives and Records Administration staff in Washington D.C., who preserve and have digitised this material.
National Archives Pension Files
Find A Grave
U.S. Army Register of Enlistments
New York Muster Roll Database
Rostellan Castle and demense were once among the best known “pleasure-gardens” in Cork. Through the 19th century it was a popular destination for visitors to the harbour, and was a frequent venue for excursions and concerts, including a fireworks display on the occasion of Queen Victoria’s visit. But in 1866 and 1867 visitors of a different sort made their way from the pier in Aghada across the bridge into Rostellan demesne. There were hundreds of them, and unlike those that had gone before they were not from the upper echelons of Irish society– rather they were amongst the poorest and most underprivileged in the entire county.
On Saturday 17 August 1867, 530 children left Cork City for Rostellan. They had come from the Cork Union Workhouse (now St. Finbarr’s Hospital), and were embarking on a trip to which they had long been looking forward. Boarding the steamer Citizen at Merchant’s Quay a little after 9 o’clock, they were joined by Mr. Steele, master of the house; the matron Mrs. Steele, the school teachers, and Rev. Mr. O’Mahony, the Catholic chaplain. Another stop was scheduled for Glenbrook where the Rev. Dr. Webster, Protestant chaplain and Mr. Mullan, J.P., came aboard. As the steamer made its way across Cork Harbour, the Workhouse Fife-and-Drum band entertained the children on their way to the pier in Aghada. From there they walked to Rostellan, crossing the bridge to enter the demesne of Rostellan Castle, then in the ownership of Dr. T.A. Wise, who had given permission for the children to access the grounds for the day:
…the children were encouraged to amuse themselves in every pleasant way child nature could devise. Some went bathing; some played carious childish games; racing matches were organised…and the winning boys were rewarded…with what in the eyes of workhouse boys were splendid prizes, though consisting only of a few coppers and diminutive silver pieces.
At intervals the band would strike up, accompanied by around 50 of the children who were part of the Workhouse singing class. Among the tunes heard across the demesne were Lily of the Vale, Morning Bells, Come to the Hedgerows and Good News from Home, with the children finishing with God Save the Queen.
At 2 o’clock a dinner of roast beef, ham and bread was served, after which the children were given the freedom of the grounds until 5. Then they were given tea, coffee and bread before being addressed by the adults with remarks “of an encouraging and hopefully character” and promises of “another and even a better trip soon.”
Leaving Rostellan at 6 o’clock, by 7 the children were back aboard the steamer heading for Cork, receiving a final meal of buns before returning to the Workhouse–and reality– at 9.
The Workhouse officials were true to their word, and only a few months later, on 11 July 1868, the children were once again making their way to Merchant’s Quay and boarding the Citizen. The excursion was reported in the Cork Examiner:
The expeditionary party was composed of the pauper children of the Cork Workhouse…a repetition of the experiment of last year, the event far exceeded it in the amount of enjoyment it yielded to the poor children, and its marked success in every respect was worthy even of the holy cause of humanity and benevolence in whose name it was undertaken.
The money for the trip had been raised through public subscription, and this time the main party consisted of 236 boys and 180 girls, all between the ages of nine and fifteen and accompanied by their Workhouse teachers. There were also 153 infants and 78 children from the hospitals, the grand total for the excursion being 650 children and 33 adults. The Workhouse Fife-and-drum band were also back. These children were representing the Workhouse, and so were dressed accordingly. The boys wore “smart grey suits” and the girls “blue dresses, white pinafores and light cotton sun-bonnets.” The Examiner correspondent noted that the children looked a lot healthier than they had on their previous visit to Rostellan, adding somewhat condescendingly:
Amongst both boys and girls there [are] many pretty, intelligent, and interesting children– indeed the entire aspect of the band, as it set out, was utterly at variance with the conventional estimate of the workhouse children.
This second visit also left behind a description of the set-up aboard the steamer Citizen:
The quarter-deck, sheltered by an awning, being assigned to the girls and infants; and the steerage or forward deck to the boys. Amidships were several large hampers, baskets and barrels…two of the largest baskets contained 750 parcels of meat, consisting of ham and beef, roast and boiled; two or three other baskets also contained meat; there were 2,000 loaves of bread, besides six barrels of biscuits; seven large cases of lemonade; three large casks of fresh water, iced; a hue basket of ripe cherries, & c.
Stops at Glenbrook and Monkstown brought aboard Reverend Webster and Felix Mullan J.P., the latter armed with two large hampers of gooseberries, footballs for the boys and smaller balls for the girls. On arriving at Aghada at 11 o’clock, the boys:
Headed by their band, they marched to the strand, and a curious scene followed. There was a simultaneous flutter of garments–the grey gave place to white linen, and that was as quickly discarded for nature’s own covering. A simultaneous rush into the sea ensued, and for the next half hour, nearly three hundred boys were gambolling boisterously in the flood.
Meantime the girls were all to taken on a trip to East Ferry, with both groups making for Rostellan demesne afterwards. After playing in the woods for a few hours, the feast began “beneath the pleasant shade of the trees”:
The boys were arranged on one side, the girls on the other; and the infants formed a separate division in the background…the several officers present, served out the food to the children according to age. All did ample justice to the viands, of which there was more than sufficient. Dr. Wise kindly added a large supply of new potatoes, hot from the kitchen of Rostellan Castle. After dinner, the girls sang a number of songs with great sweetness and singular accuracy as to time. The boys’ band also came into effective service, and two hours more having being passed in a variety of pleasant ways, the party returned to Aghada in high delight.
As the Cork Examiner noted, it does need much imagination to realise how strongly excursions such as those to Rostellan demesne “contrasted with the ordinary routine of a workhouse child’s life.” In an era when the poor were viewed as either “deserving” or “undeserving” depending on their circumstances, Workhouses were intentionally made to be unpleasant places lest the “lazy” try and exploit them. It was usually left to benevolent societies or individuals to offer additional assistance, such as raising the funds to allow for the trip to Rostellan. Visitors to the demesne today can still view the tantalising remnants of this once extravagant landscape, which in 1866 and 1867 offered Cork’s least fortunate children a few hours respite before a return to the hardship and toil that was the reality of their everyday existence.
Cork Examiner 19 August 1867
Cork Examiner 13 July 1868
Recent years have seen a dramatic upsurge in interest in Irish participation in the Great War, particularly with respect to service in the British military. Thousands of Irish men and women also served in the armed forces of other Allied nations, particularly those of the United States. However, little work has been carried out on their experiences, largely because it is extremely difficult to uncover details regarding the nativity of those who went into the conflict wearing the uniform of Uncle Sam. This is principally due to the catastrophic 1973 fire at the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, Missouri, which destroyed vast numbers of 20th century American military personnel records. As part of our U.S. Military in Ireland Centenary Project, we decided to take a look at one surviving record source, the New York State Abstracts of World War I Military Service, in an effort to determine how many had been identified as being from Cork. That search revealed the names of almost 450 men and women. A portion of the database we compiled is presented below, providing information on the name, place of birth, rank, age at enlistment, unit, overseas service and fate of these hundreds of Cork emigrants.
The database on which this listing was based was prepared by Paul Higgins, who carried out the work while on placement in our Rubicon Heritage offices. Our full database contains additional information which space constraints prevent us from including here, such as the actions some of the men were recorded as serving in, whether they were disabled as a result of their service, and whether they had received a gallantry award. Paul also sought to uncover additional detail on the individuals listed where possible. Readers should note that the detail should be taken as a guide only– during our work we have identified that the card details are not always 100% accurate. The cards themselves were transcribed in 1920 as abstracts of the military service records. The database provides only a small snapshot of Irish service in the American military during the Great War; even with respect to Corkonians and New York, there were undoubtedly many more who went into American service not recorded here. The creation of the database has brought to light numerous interesting stories, which we intend to return to in future posts. As an introduction to what the material can reveal, we take the opportunity to here to briefly explore one aspect– those men from Cork who were killed in action.
Killed in Action
A total of twenty of the men in the database were recorded as having being killed in action (see Table 1 below). Undoubtedly the most famous of these is Daniel Buckley from Ballydesmond. He lost his life while serving with the 165th Infantry on 17th October 1918. Daniel has a particular claim to fame in that he survived the sinking of RMS Titanic in 1912. His service in the 165th Infantry is no surprise, given that this was the designation of the 69th New York National Guard, the famed Irish unit. As the full database shows, it was a regiment filled with Irishmen during World War One.
The 69th or 165th went to war as part of the 42nd “Rainbow” Division. Another of the Cork men to fall in its ranks was Sergeant William O’Neill, from Bantry. During fighting in Champagne in July 1918 he continued on the line despite being wounded, “till death claimed him in the heat of the fray”(Duffy 1919:138). His death has added poignancy given the fact that two of his brothers, Eugene and Jerome, were also serving with the regiment. The regiment’s chaplain, Father Francis Duffy (who is remembered with a monument in Time Square) recalled that ‘”The three O’Neills and Bernard Finnerty as also Sergeant Spillane of Machine Gun Company came from the town of Bantry. “Rebel Cork” added new leaves to its laurel wreath of valor in this battle on the plains of Champagne”‘ (Ibid.).
Perhaps the greatest number of Irishmen served with the 77th Division, which was drawn from New York and was often called the “Liberty Division.” They are also a reminder that although those Irish who served from Ireland in the war were all regulars or volunteers, many of the Irish who went to the front as doughboys were conscripted. There were three main types of American divisions during the war– the Regular Army Divisions, made up of professional soldiers, the National Guard Divisions (such as the 42nd Division of which the 69th New York was a part) and the National Army Divisions, which was made up of men inducted into the military by draft boards. The 77th Division was one of the latter, and was the first National Army Division to go to Europe (77th Division Association 1919: 7). So many Irish served in the 77th Division that the regimental history carried a cartoon of the Irishmen’s reactions upon seeing the coast of Ireland while the troops traveled to Europe– and war– in 1917.
The 77th Division consisted of the 305th, 306th, 307th and 308th Regiments along with the 305th and 306th Machine Gun Battalions, the 304th, 305th and 306th Field Artillery Regiments and the 302nd Trench Mortar Battery. Readers will come across these units frequently in the database below, and a number of the Cork men who died served in its ranks. Some of them fell in actions that have become part of American military legend. One such engagement was that of the “Lost Battalion”. In October 1918, nine companies of the 77th were cut off for days in the Argonne Forest– an incident that inflicted not only severe hardship but horrendous casualties on the men engaged. One of those to fall early in the fighting was James Lynch of the 308th Infantry. A native of Youghal, he was mortally wounded while trying to carry news to the rear early in the advance. The divisional history records the moment he went down:
The forest at this point was infested with German machine gun nests and snipers, the enemy having brought up strong reinforcements, which made rapid advance extremely difficult and precarious. Private James Lynch, one of the runners of the Company, was sent from here with a message to the rear by the Company Commander. When gone only a short distance he was mortally wounded by machine gun fire, later dying in the advanced First Aid Station. His death was an extreme loss to the Company, since he was an able and fearless dispatch carrier. (Hussey & Flynn 1919:48)
Another Cork man in the 77th Division was Patrick Shea from Adrigole on the Beara Peninsula. The young man was in his mid-twenties at the time of the war, and was a majorly popular figure in his regiment, the 305th Infantry. When the unit history was written in 1919, he featured prominently. One of the stories told about him related to the time when the men were still in training. With the approach of Yom Kippur, it was announced that any man of the Jewish faith would be permitted passes to go to New York. As the history told it ‘a knock was heard at a certain orderly room door. In the gloomy hallway stood a big, strapping fellow who made known his desire for a pass. “You want to to go in for Yom Kippur?” “Yiss, sorr.” “What’s your name?” “Patrick Shea”‘ (Tiebout 1919: 18). Patrick was killed in action in the final days of the war. His comrades never forgot him:
Good old Pat; one of the best fighting Irishmen that ever struggled through the Argonne with his back-breaking burden, a Hotchkiss machine gun. Nearly everybody in the Regiment knew Pat Shea, of the Machine Gun Company, and felt mightily bitter when he lost his life at the Meuse, in the last few minutes of the war. (Ibid.)
Another Cork man to serve in the 305th was Sergeant Michael Kelleher. Like Pat he would not survive the war. He received a posthumous divisional citation for his actions on the Western Front:
G.O. 36, May 8, 1919.
Kelleher, Sgt. Michael (deceased), 1692867, Co. K, 305th Inf.– On Sept. 26-27, 1918, with his platoon performed the duties of a combat liaison group in the Argonne Forest between the 77th Division and the 28th Division on our right. At one time the artillery fire to which he was periodically subjected became particularly severe, 16 men of his unit being wounded. Despite this fact, Sgt. Kelleher, with cheerful disregard for his own safety, personally dressed and aided his wounded men and successfully maintained the morale of his unit, held his position and continued efficiently to carry out his mission without interruption. He was later killed in the Bois de la Naza, Oct. 5th, while gallantly leading his platoon in action.
Next of kin– Mrs. M. Donnell, aunt, 178 Devoe Street, Brooklyn (Ibid., 282).
The details of the twenty Cork men we identified as being killed in action while serving with New York units during the First World War are outlined in Table 1 below.
|Name||Place||Rank||Age at Enlistment/Induction||Unit (Final)||Actions Recorded||Killed||Date||Award/Citation|
|Buckley, Daniel||Cork||Private First Class||26||K Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Rouge Bouquet Campagne; Chateau Thierry; Argonne||Yes||17/10/18|
|Byrne, Patrick J||Cork||Private||29||69 New York National Guard||Champagne; Ourcq, Luneville||Yes||26/07/18|
|Crowley, Timothy John||Dunmanway||Segeant||27||C Company, 306 Infantry||Yes||20/08/18|
|Donovan, Denis||Cork||Private First Class||30||A Company, 69 Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry)||Foret Porroy; Baccaret; Champagne; Chateau Thierry||Yes||29/07/18|
|Driscoll, William||Cork||Private||23||I Company, 307 Infantry.||Yes||09/09/18|
|Fitzgibbon, Michael||Cork||Corporal||27||C Company, 310 Infantry||Bois de Montague||Yes||19/09/18|
|Hourihan, John J||Cork||Private||30||B Company, 9 Machine Gun Battalion||Second battle of Marne; Chateau Thierry; Jaulgonne; Vesle River; St. Mihiel; Verdun.||Yes||12/10/18||Yes|
|Kelleher, Michael||Cork||Sergeant||28||K Company, 305 Infantry,||Yes||05/10/18|
|Lynch, James||Youghal||Private||26||Machine Gun Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||07/10/18|
|Lynch, John||Bantry||Private||26||H Company, 115 Infantry||Yes||18/09/18|
|Mahony, Patrick||Cork||Private||25||B Company, 147 Machine Gun Battalion||Northwest of Verdun; Belgium Front||Yes||02/11/18|
|Murphy, Daniel||Mitchelstown||Private First Class||21||C Company, 305 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||07/09/18|
|O’Connell, Thomas||Cork||Private||27||Machine Gun Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||16/10/18|
|O’Leary, Bartholomew||Castletown Berehaven||Sergeant||29||D Company, 14 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||29/10/18|
|O’Neill, William||Bantry||Sergeant||23||H Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Rouge Banquet; Luneville; Ancerviller; Baccorat; Anherine; Champagne||Yes||15/07/18|
|Ring, William J||Cork||Private First Class||25||K Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Champagne; Chateau Thierry; Chausailles.||Yes||28/07/18|
|Shea, Patrick||Adrigole||Private||26||Machine Gun Company, 305 Infantry||Yes||01/11/18|
|Sullivan, John||Skibbereen||Private||28||C Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||24/06/18|
|Sullivan, Patrick J||Charleville||Private||29||C Company, 308 Infantry||“June24/18. No specific battles shown”||Yes||24/06/18|
|Sullivan, Patrick||Cork||Private||25||C Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||01/10/18|
Table 1. Those in the database recorded as killed in action.
Future posts will explore different aspects of the database, such as those who were cited for bravery, and an examination of the Cork nurses who served in the American forces from New York. You can explore the full database, listing all of the Cork natives we have identified, below.
|Ahearn, Cornelius F||Cork||Master Engineer||31||HQ Detachment 5 Grand Division Transport Company||Yes|
|Ahearn, Jerry Joseph||Kinsale||Private||21||6 Company Engineers Fort Schuyler||No|
|Ahern, William Joseph||Midleton||Lieutenant (J.G.)||48||USS Hercules (lighter)||N/A|
|Ahern, John J||Cork||Master Engineer||38||HQ Company 701 Engineers||Yes|
|Ahern, Cornelius||Cork||Cook||32||12 Infantry||No|
|Ahern, John||Cork||Private First Class||28||Motor Transport Department Machine Gun School||No|
|Ahern. William C||Mallow||Private||24||Brooks F Flying Detachment Squadron A||No|
|Ahern, Eugene F||Cork||Private First Class||23||Base Hospital Camp Upton||No|
|Aherne, Michael||Whitegate||Private First Class||29||302 Ammunition Train||Yes|
|Allen, Henry J||Queenstown||Sergeant||26||3 Regiment Motor Mechanics||Yes|
|Armstrong, Edward||Cork||Sergeant||21||5 Track Mortar Battalion||Yes|
|Bannon, William J||Ballymore (Cork?)||Private||32||1 Replacement Depot||Yes||Severely||28/07/18|
|Barrett, Robert J||Cork||Musician||31||HQ Company 106 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Barrett, Michael T||Cork||Private||30||Medical Detachment Camp Eustis||No|
|Barrett, Patrick R||Cork||Wagoner||28||Battery B 57 Artillery Coast Artillery Corps||Yes||Severely||09/11/18|
|Barrett, Cornelius J||Cork||Private||24||L Company, 105 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||20/10/18|
|Barrow, David||Mallow||Private||28||D Company, 501 Engineers||Yes|
|Barrow, John||Cork||Sergeant||21||M Company, 69th Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry)||Yes||Severely||07/11/18|
|Barry, Joseph C||Queenstown||Private First Class||30||F Company, 163 Infantry||Yes|
|Barry, Daniel||Cork||Private||25||A Company, 109 Infantry||Yes||Severely||11/11/18|
|Barry, Daniel||Cork||Private||24||B Company, 12 Infantry NYNG||No|
|Barry, Richard||Cork||Private First Class||22||7 Company, 2 Motor Mechanised||Yes|
|Bennet, Michael||Cork||Master Engineer||29||HQ, 301 Stevedore||Yes|
|Bennning, Geoffrey J||Youghal||Corporal||23||I Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Blake, William||Cork||Bugler||31||HQ Company, 1 infantry||Yes|
|Bohan, Thomas||Cork||Private||23||G Company, 165 Infantry (69 New York National Guard)||Yes||Slightly||30/07/18|
|Bohan, Peter J||Cork||Private||23||G Company, 165 Infantry (69 New York National Guard)||Yes||Undetermined||03/05/18|
|Bowles, Richard J||Cork||Private||21||A Battery, 42 Artillery Coast Artillery Corps||Yes|
|Bradley, Dennis||Cork||Private||43||C Company, 22 Infantry||No|
|Bradley, Jeremiah||Cork||Private||24||D Company, Ordinance Det, Aberdeen proving ground||No|
|Brady, Joseph F||Cork||Cook||23||M Company, 165 Infantry (69 New York National Guard)||Yes||Severely||21/03/18|
|Bray, John H||Cork||Corporal||28||A Company, 16 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||09/10/18|
|Breen, David J||Cork||Private||26||B Company, 504 Engineer Battalion||Yes|
|Brennan, Patrick F||Cork||Sergeant||41||A Company, 32 Infantry||No|
|Brown, John F||Cork||Private||39||O Company, 21 Engineers||No|
|Brown, Vincent||Cork||Private||20||D Company, 51 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Buckley, Patrick J||Cork||Corporal||27||I Company, 9 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||01/07/18|
|Buckley, Daniel||Cork||Private First Class||26||K Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Yes||17/10/18||Slightly||21/03/18|
|Buckley, John||Cork||Private First Class||23||Machine Gun Company, 308 Infantry||Yes|
|Buckley, John Timothy||Cork||Private First Class||24||27 Company, MPC||Yes|
|Burke, Thomas||Cork||Private First Class||31||K Company, 324 Infantry||Yes|
|Burke, James J||Cork||Private||22||33 Field Artillery||No|
|Burns, Andrew||Cork||Private First Class||24||E Company, 307 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||15/09/18|
|Byrne, Cornelius||Cork||Corporal||31||HQ Company, 3 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Byrne, Patrick J||Cork||Private||29||69 New York National Guard||Yes||Yes||26/07/18||Slightly||22/03/18|
|Callahan, John J||Cork||Private||31||152 Depot Brigade||No|
|Callahan, Michael P||Cork||Cook||31||53 Depot Brigade||No|
|Callahan, John F||Cork||Private First Class||26||L Company, 28 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||18/07/18|
|Callahan, William||Skibbereen||Sergeant||23||E Company, 307 Infantry||Yes|
|Callan, William H||Queenstown||Private||23||Aut Replacement Draft Fort Totten NY||No|
|Canavan, David F||Cork||Wagoner||29||Support Company, 42 Infantry||No|
|Carey, Michael||Cork||21||USMC, Bks Det, Hingham Mass||No|
|Carmody, Joseph Francis||Cork||Lieutenant (Temp)||30||Duty Naval Ammunition Depot, Hingham Mass||No|
|Carr, Patrick J||Cork||Private||18||D Company, 304 Ammuntion Train||Yes|
|Carroll, Michael J||Cork||Corporal||29||152 Depot Brigade||No|
|Carver, Patrick||Cork||Private||28||C Battery, 315 Field Artillery||15/04/18|
|Casey, John Patrick||Cork||Sergeant||49||USMC, Mare Island, CA||No|
|Casey, Mathew||Cork||Private||32||Ordinance Depot, Panama||No|
|Casey, Mathew||Cork||Private||33||B Company, 4 Infantry||Yes||Severely||23/07/18|
|Casey, Harry D||Newmarket||Private First Class||26||331 Infantry||Yes|
|Casey, Charles||Cork||Private||26||160 Company, RTC||Yes|
|Casey, Michael||Cork||Private||25||HQ Company, 323 Infantry||Yes|
|Casey, Joseph||Cork||Private First Class||23||C Company, 130 Engineers||Yes|
|Casey, Thomas||Charleville||Corporal||21||B Company, 329 Battalion, 305 Tank Brigade||Yes|
|Clancy, Michael||Enaughter||Corporal||41||USMC, R.R. Quantico, VA||No|
|Clark, Thomas J||Cork||Private||25||G Company, 168 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||12/09/18|
|Clarke, Benjamin||Bantry||Private||24||Motor Transport Company 741||No|
|Clifford, Richard P||Queenstown||Private||29||G Company, 48 Infantry||No|
|Coakley, Cornelius||Cork||Private||27||C Company, 51 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Coakley, John J||Cork||Private First Class||27||F Company, 323 Infantry||Yes|
|Coakley, James Joseph||Cork||Corporal||24||G Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Coffey, William J||Cork||Private||22||Medical Department Base Hospital 214||Yes|
|Collins, Daniel J||Cork||Private||35||A Battery, 37 Artillery, Coastal Artillery Corps||No|
|Collins, James||Cork||Wagoner||26||HQ Company, 308 Infantry||Yes|
|Collins, John J||Cork||2nd Lieutenant||27||Camp Devens, Mass||No|
|Collins, John J||Cork||Sergeant||23||HQ COTS, Camp Pike, Ark,||No|
|Collins, Patrick J||Queenstown||Private First Class||27||F Battery, 309 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Collins, John Joseph||Cork||Private||26||G Company, Sec B Syracuse University Students Army Training Corps Syracuse||No|
|Collins, Cornelius||Queenstown||Corporal||24||G Company, 324 Infantry||Yes|
|Comerford, John Patrick||Cork||Corporal||24||A Company, 306 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||24/08/18|
|Condon, Jeremiah||Queenstown||Sergeant||29||Med Storage Station, MD||Yes|
|Connaughton, Michael Joseph||Ballymore (Cork?)||Corporal||28||M Trk Co 464 M Sup Tn 417||Yes|
|Connors, James||Cork||Sergeant||46||Ordinance Corps||Yes|
|Conway, Maurice||Millstreet||Private||23||L Company, 303 Infantry||Yes|
|Corcoran, Patrick J||Cork||Sergeant||40||Military Police, Company 1||Yes|
|Costello, Peter Matthew||Bantry||Sup Sergeant||27||M Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Cotter, Garrett T||Cork||Private First Class||32||10 Company, 20 Engineers||Yes|
|Coughlan, Cornelius||Schull||Private||29||L Company, 328 Infantry||Yes|
|Coughlin, Edward||Cork||Private||29||H Company, 303 Infantry||Yes|
|Coughlin, Timothy||Cork||Private||30||21 Company, Machine Gun Division, Machine Gun Training Center||No|
|Cowhig, Daniel||Cork||Private||29||M Company, 2 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Cronin, Thomas J||Cork||Private||25||Depot Regiment 304,||No|
|Cronin, William Edward||Cork||Private||22||B Company, 310 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||26/09/18|
|Croston, Jobe||Cork||Private||22||B Battery, 43 Artillery CAC||Yes|
|Crowley, John J||Cork||Corporal||29||Chemical Warfare Service Camp, Kendrick NJ||No|
|Crowley, Timothy John||Dunmanway||Segeant||27||C Company, 306 Infantry||Yes||Yes||20/08/18|
|Crowley, Patrick J||Cork||Private First Class||27||G Company, 311 Infantry||Yes|
|Crowley, Stephen||Cork||Private First Class||22||B Company, 302 Engineers||Yes|
|Curran, Owen||Newmarket||Sergeant||27||E Company, 302 Ammunition Train||Yes|
|Curtin, Denis D||Rockchapel||Sergeant||23||HQ Company, 44 Artillery CAC||Yes|
|Cusack, Thomas||Cork||Private||27||33 Prisoner of war Esctort Company||Yes|
|Daly, John J||Cork||Private||41||F Company, 104 Infantry||Yes|
|Daly, Patrick||Cork||Private First Class||31||C Company, 318 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes|
|Daly, Thomas||Cork||Private||30||152 Depot Brigade||No|
|Daly, Timothy||Cork||Wagoner||29||Support Company, 303 Infantry||Yes|
|Daly, Edward M||Newmarket||Private||27||A Company, 305 Machine Gun Battallion||Yes|
|Daly, John||Cork||Sergeant||23||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes|
|Daly, John J||Schull||Corporal||27||Quartermaster Corps||No|
|Daly, Thomas||Cork||Private||24||299 Aer Provisional Service Squadron||No|
|Daly, Thomas S||Cork||Private First Class||23||279 Aer Squadron ASSC||Yes|
|Daly, Arthur J||Cork||Corporal||22||330 Infantry||Yes|
|Daly, Nicholas A||Cork||Sergeant||25||RTC Receiving depot MG training center Camp Hancock||No|
|Davis, William B||Queenstown||Wagoner||23||C Battery, 309 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Deasy, John M||Cork||Private||28||A Company, 306 Engineers||No|
|Desmond, Daniel||Cork||Private||29||B Company, 51 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Dillon, Jerome||Schull||Private||30||D Company, 11 Machine Gun Battalion,||Yes|
|Dilworth, Daniel||Cork||Corporal||28||L Company, 306 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||14/10/18|
|Dinan, Bartholomew J||Cork||Private||28||C Company, 69 Infantry NY National Guard||No|
|Dineen, John||Cork||Private First Class||28||MD Base Hospital 135||No|
|Doherty, Daniel D||Rathmore||Private||27||Provost Guard Company, Camp Hancock GA||No|
|Donegan, James J||Cork||Private First Class||26||Ordinance Casual Company 67||Yes|
|Donnellan, Thomas||West Cork||Private||27||MD||No|
|Donoghue, Daniel J||Riverstick||Private||28||L Company, 346 Infantry||Yes|
|Donovan, Denis||Cork||Private First Class||30||A Company, 69 Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry)||Yes||Yes||29/07/18|
|Donovan, Denis J||Cork||Sergeant||26||M Company, 69th Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||22/03/18|
|Donovan, James||Kinsale||Private||30||G Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Donovan, Joseph D||Cork||Private First Class||29||Camp Utilities Det QMC Camp Upton, NY||No|
|Donovan, Michael||Bauravilla||Private||29||4 Co CAC Ft Warren Mass||No|
|Donovan, Charles||Cork||Private First Class||28||A Company, 312 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes|
|Donovan, Cornelius||Cork||Private||29||E Battery, 30 Artillery CAC||No|
|Donovan, Jeremiah||Cork||Private||26||D Battery, 306 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Donovan, Jeremiah J||Cork||Sergeant||26||825 Aero Squadron||Yes|
|Donovan, John Joseph||Bantry||Private||26||M Company, 348 Infantry||Yes|
|Donovan, John V||Cork||Corporal||25||COTS Camp Lee, VA||No|
|Donovan, Henry J||Skibbereen||Private||24||HQ Company, 348 Infantry||Yes|
|Donovan, Michael||Skibbereen||Private First Class||22||C Company, 59 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Donovan, Michael P||Cork||Private||19||G Troop, 12 Cavalry||No|
|Dowling, Hugh||Cork||Private||26||Vet Hospital # 13||Yes|
|Driscoll, John||Queenstown||Bosun (Prov)||55||Mine Sweeping Division, Tompkinsville S.I., NY||N/A|
|Driscoll, Michael P||Cork||Private First Class||30||Sup Company, 305 Infantry||Yes|
|Driscoll, Denis J||Bantry||Sergeant||28||Quartermaster Corps, Fort Slocum, NY.||No|
|Driscoll, John J||Cork||Private||27||340 Motorised Truck Company||No|
|Driscoll, Jerry||Cork||Private||25||Quartermast Corps, Service Company 3, Camp Johnston, FL||No|
|Driscoll, Dennis||Cork||Sergeant||24||TC at large AEF||Yes|
|Driscoll, William||Cork||Private||23||I Company, 307 Infantry.||Yes||Yes||09/09/18|
|Driscoll, James||Kinsale||Corporal||22||E Company, 307 Engineer||Yes|
|Drislane, Kennis, J||Fermoy||Mechanic||25||B Battery, 15 Field Artillery,||Yes|
|Duffy, James||Cork||Chief Water Tender||41||Headquarters, 3rd Naval District||N/A|
|Dwyer, Neil Patrick||Cork||Corporal||46||USMC, Ft. Lafayette NY||No|
|Dwyer, Robert||Bantry||Private First Class||24||Machine Gun Company, 308 Infantry||Yes|
|Dwyer, Jeremiah||Cork||Private||22||11 Company Nov Aut Repl Draft, Camp Wheeler, GA||No|
|Dynan, William G||Cork||Sergeant||26||I Company 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||14/10/18|
|Evans, Daniel||Cork||Sergeant||26||C Company 307 F Signal Battalion,||Yes|
|Farley, Patrick Stephen||Cork||Lieutenant (J.G.)||50||(USN), Det. HELUNTA to receiving ship, Norfolk VA.||N/A|
|Feore, James||Cork||Private||25||D Company, 306 Infantry,||Yes|
|Fitzgerald, Thomas D||Cork||Private||28||A Company, 56 Machine Gun Battalion||No|
|Fitzgibbon, Michael||Cork||Corporal||27||C Company, 310 Infantry||Yes||Yes||19/09/18|
|Fitzgibbon, John||Fermoy||Private First Class||22||HQ Company, 305 Infantry||yes|
|Fitzpatrick, William||Cork||HS Mechanic||27||E Battery, 80 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Fitzpatrick, Dennis||Millstreet||Private First Class||26||77 Military Police Company||Yes|
|Flynn, Daniel J||Cork||Private First Class||29||H Company, 310 Infantry||Yes|
|Foley, William||Youghal||Private||28||C Company, 9 Battalion US Gds||No|
|Foley, Bartholomew||Cork||Private||21||E Company, 11 Engineers||Yes|
|Ford, Denis||Cork||Private||21||15 Company, Coast Artillery Corps||No|
|Ford, Daniel||Cork||Private First Class||19||I Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Severely||28/07/18|
|Forde, Michael J||Cork||Sergeant||31||Brd Sup Det Raritan Arsenal NJ||Yes|
|Galvin, Denis D||Cork||Private||24||H Company, 26 Infantry||Yes||Severely||05/10/18|
|Geaney, William V||Cork||Private||25||2 Ordinance Company, 2 Co Ord Repair shop||Yes|
|Godson, John J||Cork||Private||30||B Company, 303 Infantry. MD to discharge||Yes|
|Goggin, Frank J||Cork||Private||29||Machine Gun training center, Camp Hancock, GA||No|
|Goggin, Cornelius||Cork||Private||27||C Company, 2 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Gould, Denis||Cork||Private First Class||24||E Company, 2 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Goulding, John J||Cork||Private||27||C Battery, 31 Field Artillery||No|
|Gregory, Michael J||Cork||Corporal||33||L Company, 37 Infantry||No|
|Griffin, Michael||Cork||Private First Class||32||Ordinance Depot, 117 Ordinance repair Shop||Yes|
|Griffin, John A||Cork||Private||22||C Company, 16 Engineers,||Yes|
|Griffin, Gerald J||Cork||Bn Sergeant Major||18||HQ Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Hagerty, John||Cork||Private||30||H Company, 164 Infantry||Yes|
|Hagerty, Timothy H||Cork||Private||28||Camp Wheeler, GA. Nv Aut Repl Draft||No|
|Halliday, Robert||Ballymore (Cork?)||Chauffeur||23||HQ Detachment, 102 Field Signal Battalion||Yes|
|Halpin, John||Cork||Sergeant||22||M Company, 12 Infantry NYNG (52 Pioneer )||Yes|
|Harrigan, Jeremiah||Cork||Saddler||38||B Battery, 104 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Harrington, James J||Adrigole||Private First Class||29||L Company, 307 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||23/08/18|
|Harrington, Jeremiah||Cork||Private First Class||29||H Company, 326 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||11/10/18|
|Harrington, Peter J||Cork||Private||30||G Company, 58 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||04/10/18|
|Hart, Maurice||Cork||Private||33||L Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||28/07/18|
|Hart, Thomas H||Garryduff||Private First Class||23||M Company, 67 Infantry||No|
|Hartnett, Jerry||Cullen||Private||31||5 Company, Coast Artillery Corps, Portland Ft William ME||No|
|Hartnett, James||Cork||Private||29||74 NY Infantry NG||No|
|Hartnett, Thomas C||Cork||Private||24||E Battery 2 Field Artillery NYNG (105 Field Artillery)||Yes||Slightly||06/11/18|
|Harty, John||Cork||Private||30||156 Company, C Def of NH, Ft. Constitution||No|
|Hawkins, Thomas P||Cork||Private||23||C Battery, 305 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Hayes, Patrick B||Cork||Sergeant||36||M Company 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||22/03/18|
|Healy, Lawrence J||Cork||Corporal||22||B Battery, 309 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Heany, Patrick J||Cork||First Sergeant||25||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Degree Undetermined||30/07/18|
|Hickey, Andrew||Cork||Private First Class||33||F Company, 21 Engineers||Yes|
|Higgins, Denis||Queenstown||Corporal||32||6 Provisional Ordinance Depot, Camp Stanley, TX||No|
|Hill, Thomas P||Cork||Private First Class||29||C Company, 302 Field Signal Battalion||Yes|
|Holland, Michael||Bantry||Sergeant||31||Depot Quartermaster, Camp Hancock, GA||No|
|Holland, Patrick||Cork||Corporal||24||92 Motor Transport Company, Motor Transport Corps||Yes|
|Horan, Peter||Cork||First Sergeant||26||G Company, 69 Infantry||No|
|Horgan, Cornelius||Cork||Corporal||28||I Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||14/10/18|
|Hosford, John W A||Cork||Private First Class||24||HQ Company, 15 Field Artillery, QMC to discharge||Yes|
|Hourihan, John J||Cork||Private||30||B Company, 9 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||Yes||12/10/18|
|Howard, James||Cork||Private||30||K Company, 307 Infantry,||Yes||Severely||14/09/18|
|Humphries, James||Cork||Private||30||A Company, 51 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Hurley, Daniel||Cork||Corporal||28||C Battery, 38 Artillary, Coast Artillery Corps||No|
|Hurley, Jeremiah||Cork||Private First Class||26||F Company, 308 Infantry,||Yes||Slightly||30/09/18|
|Hurley, Jerome Bernard||Cork||Private||24||A Company, 302 Engineers||Yes|
|Hurley, Richard||Cork||Private||24||H Company, 305 Infantry||No|
|Johnson, James H||Cork||Reg Sergeant Major||45||HQ Company, 7 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||04/10/18|
|Johnston, George William||Cork||Lieutenant (J.G.)||27||Naval School, Columbia University, USN||N/A|
|Jordan, Eugene||Cork||Private First Class||24||HQ Company, 347 Infantry||Yes|
|Kane, Lawrence J||Cork||Private First Class||29||MD General Hospital 14 Ft. Oglethorpe||No|
|Keane, Thomas L||Cork||Private||23||H Company, 108 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||29/09/18|
|Kearney, Michael||Newmarket||Captain||43||Jd. Mare Island CA.||No|
|Keating, Daniel||Cork||Corporal||30||Ordinance C, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD||No|
|Keefe, John J||Cork||Private||40||A Company, 215 Engineers||No|
|Keleher, Dennis||Cork||Sergeant||37||School for bakers & Cooks, Camp Dix, NJ||Yes|
|Kelleher, Michael||Cork||Sergeant||28||K Company, 305 Infantry,||Yes||Yes||05/10/18|
|Kelleher, Cornelius||Macroom||Private||27||E Company, 51 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Kelleher, Michael||Cork||Private||27||MD to discharge||No|
|Kelleher, Patrick||Cork||Private||27||G Company, 328 Infantry||Yes|
|Kelleher, Cornelius||Cork||Private||27||F Company, 355 Infantry||Yes|
|Kelly, James||Youghal||Corporal||29||C Company, 305 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||Degree Undetermined||07/09/18|
|Kelly, John J||Cork||Private||27||G Company, 166 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||13/09/18|
|Kennedy, Joseph H||Cork||Private First Class||30||B Company, 33 Engineers||Yes|
|Kennedy, Edward Thomas||Cork||Private||23||A Company, 316 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes|
|Kennedy, William V||Cork||Private||21||E Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||Degree Undetermined||14/08/18|
|Keohane, Denis||Bantry||Private First Class||26||Machine Gun training center, Camp Hancock, GA||No|
|Keohane, Jeremiah||Bantry||Private||24||3 Company, 25 Ordinance supply||No|
|Keyes, John Michael||Cork||Captain||42||Camp Dix, NJ||Yes|
|Kiely, Michael Anthony||Cork||Lieutenant||30||461 Aer Squadron,||No|
|Kingston, William||Ballydehob||Private||29||F Company, 25 Engineers||Yes|
|Kingston, George S||Drimoleague||Private||25||A Battery, 304 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Kinkead, Thomas M||Cork||Private||31||C Company, 105 Infantry||Yes||Severely||29/09/18|
|Kinnery, William A||Cork||Private First Class||29||D Company, 5 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes|
|Landers, Robert F||Cork||Private||29||G Company, 45 Infantry||No|
|Landy, Albert||Cork||Private||27||D Company, 501 Engineers||Yes|
|Leahy, William||Cork||Private||29||224 Aero Squadron,||Yes|
|Leary, Cornelius D||Cork||Private||29||A Company, 309 Infantry||No|
|Leary, Timothy||Cork||Private First Class||29||B Company, 307 Infantry||Yes||Severely||28/08/18|
|Lenihan, Patrick||Cork||Cook||25||B Company, 163 Infantry/POW escort to discharge||Yes|
|Long, Edward D||Cork||Private||27||Construction Co 9 Kelly F Tex||Yes|
|Looney, James||Cork||Private||27||Engineers C Camp Humphreys, VA||No|
|Looney, John J||Cork||Corporal||27||Med Det 9 Inf to discharge||Yes||Severely||01/06/18|
|Lucey, John J||Kanturk||Sergeant||23||MD 305 Infantry||Yes||Severely||07/11/18|
|Lucey, William||Queenstown||Ensign||22||Naval Auxilliary Reserve, NY/N.O.T.S. Baltimore||N/A|
|Lynch, Jerome Mosley||Cork||Lt. Commander||47||Naval Hospital NY “America”||N/A|
|Lynch, James J||Cork||Sergeant||39||HQ Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes|
|Lynch, James||Youghal||Private||26||Machine Gun Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||Yes||07/10/18|
|Lynch, Jeremiah S.||Cork||Private||26||B Battery, 305 Field Artillery,||Yes|
|Lynch, John||Bantry||Private||26||H Company, 115 Infantry||Yes||Yes||18/09/18|
|Lynch, Michael||Cork||Private First Class||25||D Company, 305 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||16/08/18|
|Lyons, Daniel Bartholmon||Cork||Private First Class||30||B Company, 347 Infantry||Yes|
|Madden, Stephen J||Cork||Private||34||Repl Engineers, Ft. Foote, MD||Yes|
|Magner, Michael J||Cork||Sergeant||28||MD Post Hospital, Madison Barracks, NY||No|
|Magner, William J||Cork||Corporal||26||Support Company 332 Camp Merritt, NJ||No|
|Mahony, Michael||Cork||Sergeant||54||B Company, 443 Reserve Labor Battalion||No|
|Mahony, James J||Cork||Private First Class||31||D Company, 38 Infantry||Yes|
|Mahony, Stephen||Cork||Private First Class||25||Base Hospital #85||Yes|
|Mahony, Patrick||Cork||Private||25||B Company, 147 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||Yes||02/11/18|
|Mahony, Michael J||Cork||Sergeant Mechanic||21||Quartermaster Corps Camp Greene, NC||No|
|Maloney, Dan(iel)||Cork||Cook||21||B Company, 10 Infantry NYNG (51 Pioneer Infantry)||Yes|
|Marks, James Christopher Jr.||Cork||1st Lietenant||28||Infantry ASP||No|
|Mason, Harry||Cork||Private First Class||30||D Company, 38 Infantry||Yes|
|Massey, Arthur B||Cork||Private||32||157 Depot Brigade||No|
|Maume, Gerald V||Cork||Private First Class||30||C Company, 345 Infantry,||Yes|
|McAuliffe, Julia||Cork||Nurse||44||Post Hospital, Belgium, Camp Devens, Mass||Yes|
|McAuliff, Cornelius J||Cork||Sergeant||30||General Hospital # 8,||No|
|McAuliffe, Michael J||Cork||Sergeant||30||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||15/10/18|
|McAuliffe, Denis||Cork||Corporal||26||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Severely||14/10/18|
|McCarthy, Lawrence||Clonakilty?||Wagoner||21||MD F Hospital, 305 302 Sn Tn||Yes|
|McCarthy, William||Cork||Private||31||K Company, 348 Infantry||Yes|
|McCarthy, Denis||Cork||Sergeant||25||M Company, 69th Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry)||Yes||Twice, Slightly and Severely,||30/07/18|
|McCarthy, Michael J||Skibbereen||Private First Class||29||B Company, 321 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||Slightly||16/10/18|
|McCarthy, Patrick||Skibbereen?||Private First Class||29||I Company, 306 Infantry||Yes|
|McCarthy, William||Cork||Private First Class||29||231 MPC||Yes|
|McCarthy, Edmond Finbar||Cork||2nd Lieutenant||29||1 Replacement Depot,||Yes|
|McCarthy, Frank||Cork||Private||28||M Company, 141 Infantry||Yes||Gassed severely||07/10/18|
|McCarthy, William||Cork||Private First Class||25||162 Dep Brigade||No|
|McCarthy, Eugene J||Cork||Corporal||27||MD||No|
|McCarthy, Alexander J||Cork||Private First Class||24||C Battery, 306 Field Artillery||Yes|
|McCarthy, Eugene||Cork||Sergeant||24||A Company, 3 Infantry||No|
|McCarthy, Bartholomew||Cork||Corporal||24||152 Depot Brigade||No|
|McCarthy, Harry||Cork||Private||34||E Company, 42 Infantry||No|
|McCarthy, Patrick J||Cork||Cook||21||L Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes|
|McDermott, Michael F||Cork||Sergeant||29||HQ Det Army Service Corps A PO 117||Yes|
|McDonald, Michael||Youghal||Private First Class||22||F Company, 108 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||29/09/18|
|McGillicuddy, John||Cork||Private||22||E Company, 69 Infantry NYNG||No|
|McNamara, Bart||Cork||Corporal||29||F Battery, Field Artillery, NYNG (104 Field Artillery)||Yes|
|McNamara, John Finbar||Queenstown||Lietenant (J.G.)||27||Naval Overseas Transportation Service NY “America”||N/A|
|McSweeney, Myles J||Cork||Private First Class||31||47 Artillery, Coast Artillery Corps,||No|
|McSweeney, Jeremiah W||Bantry||Private||27||HQ Company, 127 Field Artillery,||Yes|
|Mills, George||Glanmire||Private||29||AS Mechanic School Det, St. Paul, Minn.||No|
|Monahan, John J||Cork||Boatswain||44||On duty Armed Draft Detail, Navy Yard, NY||N/A|
|Moore, John J||Cork||Private||22||I Company, 326 Infantry||Yes|
|Morrissey, Michael||Cork||Wagoner||47||HQ Det, 102 Am Tn,||Yes|
|Moynihan, Joseph P||Cork||Wagoner||31||Support Company, 18 Field Artillery,||Yes|
|Moynihan, Eugene||Cork||Private||29||D Company, 7 Machine Gun Battalion||No|
|Moynihan, Jerome||Cork||Master Sargeant?||29||A Company, 9 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes|
|Moynihan, James J||Ballingeary||Private||21||B Company, 164 Infantry||Yes|
|Mulcahy, Michael J||Cork||Private||26||C Company, 162 Infantry||Yes||Severely||09/10/18|
|Mullane, John||Cork||Private||30||C Battery, 304 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Mullane, John||Cork||Private||27||Ambulance Company, 108 Sn Tn||Yes|
|Mullane, John||Cork||Private||25||K Company, 350 Infantry||Yes|
|Murphy, Daniel||Cork||Reg Sergeant Major||47||Infantry School of Arms Det||No|
|Murphy, Dennis J||Cork||Private First Class||30||C Company, 318 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes|
|Murphy, Patrick||Cork||Private||30||Quartermaster Corps||No|
|Murphy, Jerome||Cork||Private First Class||27||Machine Gun Troop 3, Cavalry||Yes|
|Murphy, Michael||Kiskeam||Private First Class||27||B Company, 30 Machine Gun Battalion||No|
|Murphy, Peter||Cork||Private||28||A Company, 19 Battalion, US Guards||No|
|Murphy, Cornelius||Cork||Private First Class||25||MD||No|
|Murphy, Cornelius||Cork||Private||25||Machine Gun training center, Camp Hancock, GA||No|
|Murphy, Denis||Cork||Sergeant||23||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)/329 MG Battalion||Yes||Slightly||02/08/18|
|Murphy, Jeremiah||Cork||Corporal||24||G Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes|
|Murphy, Patrick J||Cork||Private||25||D Company, 302 Infantry||Yes|
|Murphy, John P||Queenstown||Sergeant||23||H Company, 16 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||20/07/18|
|Murphy, Jeremiah Michael||Cork||Private||22||G Company, 2 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Murphy, Daniel||Mitchelstown||Private First Class||21||C Company, 305 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||Yes||07/09/18|
|Murray, Thomas||Cork||Private||22||C Company, 305 Infantry||Yes||Severely||12/10/18|
|Nash, Robert Arthur||Collenstown Cork?||Machinist||26||Naval Auxilliary Reserve,||N/A|
|Newman, Thomas P||Cork||Private||34||Provost Guard Company, Camp Jackson, SC.||No|
|Newman, Denis||Cork||Private First Class||26||F Battery, 1 Field Artillery NYNG(104 Field Artillery)||Yes|
|O’Brien, Jeremiah||Cork||Private||31||1st Company, 1st Battalion, 153 Dep Brigade||No|
|O’Brien, Michael||Cork||Cook||27||K Company, 69 Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||21/03/18|
|O’Brien, Thomas||Cork||Private||28||E Company, 108 Infantry||Yes||Degree undetermined||29/09/18|
|O’Brien, Daniel||Cork||Private||27||I Company, 18 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||02/10/18|
|O’Brien, Daniel||Cork||Wagoner||27||D Battery, 60 Field Artillery||No|
|O’Brien, Michael D||Clonakilty||Private||26||Machine Gun Company, 105 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||29/09/18|
|O’Brien, Denis||Cork||Corporal||23||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||12/09/18|
|O’Connell, Thomas||Cork||Private||27||Machine Gun Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||Yes||16/10/18|
|O’Connell, Dennis||Grenagh||Private||25||H Company, 308 Infantry||Yes|
|O’Connell, John J||Cork||Chauffeur||23||HQ Det Rents Requisitions and Claims Co 41||Yes|
|O’Connor, Jeremiah||Cork||Mechanic||29||K Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||20/03/18|
|O’Connor, Jeremiah||Cork||Sergeant First Class||28||Motor Transport Corps||Yes|
|O’Connor, Denis M||Cork||Sergeant||27||G Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||yes||Slightly||31/07/18|
|O’Connor, Michael||Cork||Corporal||23||Bks Det||No|
|O’Connor, William||Cork||Sergeant||27||Support Company, 306 Infantry||Yes||Severely||20/08/19|
|O’Connor, Bartholomew||Cork||Mechanic||26||E Battery, 306 Field Artillery||Yes|
|O’Connor, David S.||Cork||Musician First Class||25||HQ Company, 322 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||09/11/18|
|O’Connor, Elizabeth||Cork||Nurse||25||General Hospital Fort Sheridan, IL||Yes|
|O’Connor, Michael||Cork||Private||25||D Company, 307 Ammunition Train||Yes|
|O’Donnell, James||Cork||Private||23||4 Grand Division||Yes|
|O’Donohue, Denis||Cork||Private||30||K Company, 18 Infantry||Yes|
|O’Donovan, Patrick J||Cork||Corporal||22||Quartermaster Corps Camp Wadsworth||No|
|O’Dwyer, Patrick||Cork||Private First Class||21||B Company, 130 Engineers||Yes|
|O’Gorman, James J||Cork||Private||21||E Company, 53 Infantry||No|
|O’Hanlon, John Francis||Cork||Sergeant||33||626 Aero Squadron||No|
|O’Keefe, Timothy||Cork||Private First Class||22||K Company, 9 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||15/07/18|
|O’Leary, Bartholomew||Castletown Berehaven||Sergeant||29||D Company, 14 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||Yes||29/10/18|
|O’Leary, Daniel||Cork||Private First Class||31||806 Aero Squadron||Yes|
|O’Leary, Timothy||Blarney||Corporal||29||Machine Gun training center, Camp Hancock, GA||No|
|O’Leary, James||Cork||Private||27||D Company, 9 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes||Slightly||26/07/18|
|O’Leary, Timothy||Cork||Private||23||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG||No|
|O’Leary, Timothy||Cork||Private||24||14 Provisional Engineers Camp Humphreys*||Yes|
|O’Leary, Patrick||Cork||Corporal||23||55 Company, Tank Corps||Yes|
|O’Neill, Jerome||Bantry||Sergeant First Class||22||H Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes|
|O’Neill, William||Bantry||Sergeant||23||H Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Yes||15/07/18|
|O’Neill, Michael J||Kanturk||Private First Class||25||B Battery, 308 Field Artillery||Yes|
|O’Regan, Jeremiah||Cork||Private First Class||32||C Company, 58 Infantry||Yes|
|O’Reilly, Patrick||Cork||Private First Class||22||K Company, 9 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||01/11/18|
|O’Sullivan, Frank Theobald||Cork||2nd Lieutenant||49||Veterinary Corps, AEF Camp Dix NJ||Yes|
|O’Sullivan, William||Cork||Sergeant||28||HQ Company, 19 Infantry||No|
|O’Sullivan, Patrick||Cork||Stable Sergeant||21||A Battery, 14 Field Artillery||No|
|O’Sullivan, Patrick J||Cork||Private First Class||23||D Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|O’Sullivan, Timothy||Cork||Private First Class||23||E Company, 64 Infantry||Yes|
|O’Sullivan, Frank||Cork||Private||21||M Company, 53 Infantry||Yes|
|Owens, Bernard J||Dromore||Private First Class||18||H Company, 106 Infantry/Cas (in hosp) to discharge||Yes||Severely||28/09/18|
|Pattison, John||Cork||Private||26||56 Depot Brigade||No|
|Perrott, Edward T||Cork||Private||29||E Company, 22 Infantry||No|
|Phillips, Walter||Passage West||Corporal||27||Quartermaster Corps||Yes|
|Powers, Bart T||Queenstown||Private||40||F Company, 12 Engineers||Yes|
|Prendergast, Richard Francis||Kinsale||Lietenant (J.G.)||28||To duty reserve ship, New York||N/A|
|Reen, John||Cork||Corporal||24||D Company, 307 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||14/09/18|
|Regan, Timothy||Cork||Recruit||28||31 Company, 8 Battalion, 152 Depot Brigade||No|
|Regan, Daniel||Cork||Private First Class||26||A Battery, 78 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Regan, Patrick||Cork||Sergeant||23||G Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Severely||28/07/18|
|Reilly, Cornelius||Cork||Private First Class||32||B Battery, 12 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Ring, John M||Cork||Mechanic||25||K Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Severely||02/08/18|
|Ring, William J||Cork||Private First Class||25||K Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Yes||28/07/18||Slightly||14/03/18|
|Riordan, Francis||Cork||Gunnery Sergeant||46||USMC, Barrack Det Navy Yard, DC.||No|
|Roche, John||Dripsey||Private||27||Aux Reg Dep 306 Quartermaster Corps||No|
|Rogers, Joseph||Cork||Mess Sergeant||28||B Company, Gr # 2 MTD Machine Gun Training Center Camp Hancock, GA||No|
|Ronan, John J||Cork||Corporal||25||L Company, 23 Infantry||Yes|
|Ronan, Michael A||Buttevant||Private||19||Student Army Training Center, St Johns College, Brooklyn, NY.||No|
|Ryan, Dennis J||Cork||Sergeant||22||25 Battalion, Co Aviation Center Camp Morrison VA,||No|
|Ryan, Donald David||Cork||Private||19||A Battery, 106 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Scannell, John J||Farran?||Corporal||29||Service Company, 60 Infantry||Yes|
|Scannell, William||Cork||Private First Class||22||B Company, 35 Machine Gun Battalion||No|
|Sexton, Richard||Cork||Wagoner||30||Support Company, 38 Infantry||Yes|
|Shannon, Thomas F||Bantry||Private First Class||30||77 Company, Military Police||Yes|
|Shea, John||Queenstown||Ensign||53||Never Mobilised||N/A|
|Shea, Peter J||Bantry||Private First Class||28||H Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Severely||29/07/18|
|Shea, Patrick||Adrigole||Private||26||Machine Gun Company, 305 Infantry||Yes||Yes||01/11/18|
|Shea, John||Cork||Private||25||L Company, 106 Infantry||Yes|
|Sheedy, David||Cork||Captain||42||59 Infantry||Yes|
|Sheedy, Frank J||Cork||Cook||30||E Battery, 57 Coast Artillery Corps||Yes|
|Sheehan, Joseph P||Cork||Private||29||3 A A Machine Gun Battalion,||Yes|
|Sheehan, Timothy||Cork||Private||26||D Battery, 305 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Sheehan, James P||Cork||Private||23||Rep Unit 320 Motor Transport Corps||Yes|
|Sheehan, Jeremiah||Cork||Private||23||E Battery, 335 Field Artillery,||Yes|
|Sheehan, Jerry||Cork||Private||23||M Company, 16 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||19/07/18|
|Sheehan, Thomas J||Cork||Private||24||Veterinary Hospital 13||Yes|
|Sheehan, Timothy||Cork||Private First Class||24||D Company, 304 Machine Gun Battalion||Yes|
|Sheehan, John||Cork||Corporal||21||E Company, 305 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||27/09/18|
|Shinnick, William||Cork||Private||29||A Company, 106 Infantry||Yes||Severely||27/08/18|
|Smith, Edward James||Queenstown||Private First Class||28||317 Company, Tank Corps,||Yes|
|Smith, Harry||Cork||Private||18||17 Company, 9 Coast Artillery Corps, NYNG||No|
|Spillane, Michael||Cork||Sergeant||44||Mtd Service School Det, Fort Riley, Kans||No|
|Spillane, John J||Cork||Sergeant||27||MG Company, 69 Infantry NYNG(165 Infantry),||Yes||Slightly||14/10/18|
|Stack, Richard Theodore||Fermoy||Sergeant||30||K Company, 305 Infantry,||Yes||Slightly||08/11/18|
|Stephens, Nassau Somerville||Queenstown||Captain||50||Quartermasters Corps,||No|
|Sullivan, Bartholomew Alphonse||Adrigole||Sergeant||43||USMC, Cas Det ?||Yes|
|Sullivan, Cornelius||Adrigole||Wagoner||31||Support Company, 309 Field Artillery||Yes|
|Sullivan, Daniel Francis||Cork||Private||30||152 Depot Brigade||No|
|Sullivan, Jeremiah||Cork||Lietenant (J.G.)||28||Mine Sweeping Division, Tompkinsville S.I., NY||N/A|
|Sullivan, Patrick||Tracashel||Private||30||Quartermasters Corps at large||Yes|
|Sullivan, Benjamin||Cork||Private||28||B Company, 306 Infantry||Yes||Degree undetermined||12/10/18|
|Sullivan, Jeremiah||Cork||Private First Class||28||B Company, 306 Infantry||Yes||Severely||27/09/18|
|Sullivan, John||Skibbereen||Private||28||C Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||Yes||24/06/18|
|Sullivan, Patrick J||Charleville||Private||29||C Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||Yes||24/06/18|
|Sullivan, Patrick||Cork||Sergeant||26||45 Battery 5 AA Sect||Yes|
|Sullivan, William O||Cork||Sergeant||28||HQ Company, 19 Infantry||No|
|Sullivan, Daniel J||Newmarket||Private||25||4 Company 152 Depot Brigade||Yes|
|Sullivan, Patrick||Cork||Private||25||C Company, 308 Infantry||Yes||Yes||01/10/18|
|Sullivan, Daniel Joseph||Bantry||Corporal||25||C Company, 114 Infantry||Yes|
|Sullivan, Michael J||Cork||Private||24||G Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Sullivan, Cornelius||Cork||Private First Class||22||F Company, 2 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Sullivan, Michael F||Cork||Corporal||22||234 Company, Military Police,||Yes|
|Swanton, Richard P||Queenstown||Private||30||MD Base Hospital 123||Yes|
|Sweeney, Mortimer||Millstreet?||Sergeant||27||Base Hospital 113,||Yes|
|Sweetman, James||Ballydehob||Private||27||K Company, 348 Infantry||Yes|
|Sweetman, George||Cork||Corporal||25||C Company, 306 Field Signal Battalion,||Yes|
|Tarrant, George||Cork||Private First Class||26||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||No|
|Tobin, Robert Richard||Cork||Private||28||HQ Company, Cas Det Camp Wordsworth, SC.||No|
|Twomey, Jeremiah||Lacka Co. Cork||Private First Class||25||C Company, 26 Infantry||Yes||Slightly||07/10/18|
|Wade, Cornelius||Ballymore||Private First Class||28||HQ Company, 326 Infantry||Yes|
|Walsh, David||Cork||Private First Class||33||D Company, 69 Infantry NYNG (165 Infantry)||Yes||Slightly||19/07/18|
|Walsh, John||Cork||Private||26||B Company, 320 Infantry||Yes||Degree undetermined||01/11/18|
|Walsh, John J||Cloyne||Private||24||B Company, 130 Engineers||Yes|
|Warner, Robert||Cork||Private First Class||23||I Company, 3 Prov Regiment||No|
|Waters, Grames P||Cork||Private First Class||28||HQ Company, 22 Infantry||No|
|Watson, George H||Cork||Cook||27||M Company, 52 Pioneer Infantry||Yes|
|Whalen, John||Cork||Mechanic||28||I Company, 69 Infantry NYNG||No|
|Wood, Rebecca Mary||Cork||Nurse||40||Debark H 3 Greenhut Building, NY||No|
|Wood, Joseph F||Cork||Sergeant||37||C Company, 10 Infantry NYNG (51 Pioneer Infantry)||Yes|
References & Acknowledgements
*This database was compiled by Paul Higgins under the direction of Damian Shiels for the Midleton Archaeology & Heritage Project. Paul’s dedication to uncovering these men and women’s stories and his efforts at locating additional detail on their service added greatly to the project. Thanks are also due to Pat Sullivan, a Cork New Yorker whose own family served in the 77th Division, for drawing my attention to the fantastic cartoon depicting the reaction of Irish troops in the division to sighting the coast of Ireland while on their way to Europe.
New York State Archives. New York State Abstracts of World War I Military Service, 1917–1919.
77th Division Association 1919. History of the Seventy Seventh Division August 25th 1917–November 11th 1918.
Duffy, Francis P. 1919. Father Duffy’s Story: A Tale of Humor and Heroism, of Life and Death with the Fighting Sixty-Ninth.
Hussey, Alexander & Flynn, Raymond. 1919. The History of Company E, 308th Infantry (1917-1919).
Tiebout, Frank B. 1919. A History of the 305th Infantry.
Through the second half of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century Christmas brought with it an expectation of charitable aid to the poor around the town, manifested through initiatives like the Christmas Coal Fund, which aimed to help those less fortunate in meeting the added burden of heating their homes during Winter. The unfortunate inmates of Midleton Workhouse (now Midleton Hospital) were another group who benefited from Yuletide initiatives, offering an all too brief respite from the desperate conditions in which they found themselves. During the late 19th century, one of the biggest Christmas events in the town was the annual event held for the Workhouse children, when presents and entertainments (such as music, magic lantern shows and even hypnotists) were laid on by the town’s more fortunate inhabitants.
One of the earliest references to Christmas in Midleton Workhouse appears in the Leinster Express of 25th December 1852. At the conclusion of the Famine, the paper noted that the poor in Waterford Workhouse were being given 1lb of beef each for dinner on Christmas Day, while at Midleton “the paupers have been treated to reduced rations.” Later Christmases did bring some respite, as noted by the Cork Examiner on 20th December 1875. By that date the tradition of giving gifts to the Workhouse children each year had been established. On 23rd December 1875 some of the most notable people of the locality– including Mrs. T.S. Coppinger, Mrs. Ashlin, Mrs. S. Coppinger, Miss. Fitzgerald, Miss Power, Rev. D. Lynch and the Rev. PJ Horgan– arrived to distirbute the gifts. They were handed out in the girls’ school room, which was decorated for the occasion with laurels and “appropriate mottoes” including a “Caed-mille-failthe” display made from ivy leaves intertwined with shamrocks. One of the boys in the Workhouse read out an address, which thanked Mrs. Coppinger and the Board of Guardians for their interest in the children’s welfare. Father Lynch responded to express his:
“satisfaction…at the good order and regularity which they saw exhibited by the children; exhorted them to be always kind and forebearing to each other; obedient and respectful to their superiors, and by doing so, to merit a renewal of the favours shown to them by Mrs. Coppinger and the other kind ladies who had come forward so generously to contribute to their happiness at this holy season.”
In line with Victorian concepts of the deserving poor, Father Lynch also exhorted the children to:
“pay the greatest attention to their school studies and the other duties appertaining to their station in life, reminding them that they were in possession of advantages denied to a great many poor children in the world. By doing so they would make themselves respectable and useful members of society…”.
Following the speeches Mrs. Coppinger distributed the gifts, which included sweetmeats and toys, while the children also sang a number of songs. The newspaper noted that:
“The joy shown on the faces of the little ones as each new and wonderful toy was presented, created the greatest amusement to the visitors, who, when departing, declared themselves highly gratified with the day’s proceedings, which wound up with a three times three for the ladies.”
Christmas entertainments for the poor children remained a common theme at the Workhouse, and Mrs. T.S. Coppinger maintained a long association with it. More than a decade later, the 24th December 1887 edition of the Cork Examiner recorded that she had brought the children tea, sweets, sweetcakes, toys and books, and noted that she:
“has never forgotten to visit the Midleton Workhouse at this festive season of Christmas, and her efforts to afford the juvenile inmates of the Midleton Workhouse a happy Christmas will bring to herself many happy returns of the coming New Year.”
The tradition of giving to the children was still alive in the 1890s. On 11th January 1896 the Cork Examiner reported that the poor children of the Workhouse had been given their Christmas treat “through the generosity of the kind-hearted people of the town,” and a Christmas tree laden with “dainties and nick-nacks” was also provided for them. The children were allocated their gift from the tree via a draw (among the exotics that adorned it were fruits, such as oranges).
Christmas also saw the annual erection of a crib in the Workhouse Chapel. There was often additional charity for the older inmates of the Workhouse as well. In 1897 all the Workhouse residents were able to enjoy an evening of vocal and musical entertainment, together with a magic lantern show of continental scenes put on by P. Hallinan of Avoncore. The room in the Workhouse where the show was held was festively decorated, and during intervals songs and piano forte solos were given by local amateur musicians. A similar gift-giving exercise for the children in 1897 also included the distribution of tobacco and snuff to the aged and infirm inmates, though bad weather that year meant that the “kind ladies and gentlemen of the town, who annually patronise the workhouse entertainments were precluded from attending on this occasion” (Cork Examiner 9th January 1897, 11th January 1898).
The Christmas Fete at Midleton Workhouse continued into the 20th century. One wonders what became of many of these children who, at least for one day, found themselves a focus of attention. To give readers a flavour of how the event was reported, below is a full transcript of the article on the proceedings from the Cork Examiner of 9th January 1901:
FETE AT MIDLETON WORKHOUSE
The annual fete and entertainment for the enjoyment of the children at the Midleton Workhouse came off in the schoolroom of that institution on Sunday last, in the presence of a large number of the townspeople. The general attendance also included- the Very Rev Canon Hutch, PP, DD, VF, Midleton; Rev CS O’Connor, CC, do, and the Nuns of the Workhouse. The room was tastefully decorated with evergreens and suitable mottoes, and in the centre was a large Christmas Tree heavily laden with a fine selection of toys and other gifts for the children, kindly provided through the generosity of the townspeople. When the proceedings began at two o’clock the whole surroundings presented a very pleasing aspect, and one could not fail being struck by the bright and happy faces of the little ones as they filed into their allotted seats under the care of their teachers, Mr and Mrs O’Sullivan, their school-teachers. A beautiful supply of cake, tea, and fruit was distributed amongst them by the good nuns, and whilst engaged in the agreeable occupation of doing justice for the good things provided, the entertainment of vocal and instrumental music was proceeded with. The first item was a song with chorus, “The Holy City,” by Mr W Ronayne, who was heard with much pleasure, and being loudly encored he sang with much feeling and expressions, “The Tempest of the Heart.” Mr D O’Sullivan, a Cork baritone of great promise, sang tastefully, “Savourneen Deelish,” his rich deep voice and fine intonation being highly appreciated. Mr John Bastible acquitted himself well in the rendering of “Queen of the Earth,” and was followed, by Mr William Cashman, whose fine tenor voice was heard in the singing of “When other Lips,” for which he was deservedly encored. The selections from “Les Cloches de Cornville” played on the violin by Miss Fitzgerald, with piano accompaniment by Mr C Byrne, was admirably performed, the uniqueness of touch and execution displayed by this youthful performer being much appreciated. The principal feature of the entertainment was the hypnotic exhibition given by Mr P C Leahy, Midleton, which was simply marvellous, the audience being amazed at the many strange feats in the hypnotic trance. This concluded the entertainment, after which the different prizes on the Christmas Tree were drawn for and distributed by the nuns. The Rev Canon Hutch then addressed a few felicitous remarks to the children, congratulating them on the success of the entertainment, and on their behalf he thanked the Nuns, the Master (Mr Daly) Mr and Mrs O’Sullivan, and also the various gentlemen who contributed to the entertainment. Three hearty cheers were then given by the youthful audiences for all the visitors who had so kindly attended, and did so much brighten and relieve the monotony of their Workhouse lives, and lusty cheers were also given for the esteemed Pastor, the Nuns, and the Master, Mr Daly, to whom much credit is due.
Workhouses.org: Midleton Workhouse
Between 1917 and 1919 thousands of American servicemen were stationed in Cork during World War One. What did they make of their surroundings? Back in the United States, local newspapers were eager to get correspondence from them, and family’s regularly contributed letters for local publication. We have identified a number, and reproduce them in full below. Here are descriptions from Americans based in Cobh, Aghada, Berehaven and Whiddy, with fascinating insights into both their service and their thoughts on Ireland and Irish people.
The first letter was written by Berkley Harker, who served aboard USS Trippe out of Cork Harbour. Berkley was also the pitcher for the vessel’s baseball team, and participated in the famous baseball game at the Mardyke Cricket Grounds in 1917. The letter was published in The Morning New Bernian in North Carolina on 18th August 1917.
NEW BERN BOY ON ‘SUB’ CHASER IN DANGER ZONE
Berkley Harker Writes of Picking Up British Crew, and of Sinking U-Boat
PITCHES BASEBALL GAME IN IRELAND
Mr. Berkley Harker, who is serving in the navy on one of Uncle Sam’s fighting ships, has written a most interesting letter to his mother, Mrs. James A. Harker, of this city. The letter was written in Queenstown, Ireland, on the first of August, and mailed in Newark, N.J., on the fifteenth by a member of the crew of an American oil tanker which sailed from Queenstown on the first. The letter in part follows:
“We have had some of the war and came out successful, no one being hurt. One time we picked up seventy-five survivors from an English merchant ship which had been sunk by a submarine. We were unable to find the sub, as it disappeared. We have seen three subs so far and dropped mines for them, and we are sure we got one, as we saw oil and some wood come up after we dropped the mine. The mine is set to explode at a certain depth, so when we sight a sub we run right over it and drop one of them.
We have a good baseball team, and I am the pitcher. We play every time we come in, but that is not often as we go to sea for five days and only stay in three. We have been to France and to Liverpool since we have been over here and we expect to go to London the last of this month for two weeks.
We are now on County Cork and only thirty-five miles from City Cork. The city has a population of about seventy-five thousand and is just about as lively as Beaufort.”
Mr. Harker enclosed a clipping from a Cork paper giving an account of a game of baseball played there between teams from the U.S.S. Trippe (Mr. Harker’s team) and the U.S.S. Melville, which is very interesting [the report of the game for the Cork Examiner clipping follows]
The Morning New Bernian 18th August 1917
The next letter was written by Lieutenant John Herlihy, who was based at the USNAS base in Aghada. He had interesting things to say about visits to a local castle (likely Rostellan) and the situation of people in Ireland. It was published in the Massachusetts Fitchburg Sentinel on 1st June 1918.
LIEUT. HERLIHY VISITS AN OLD CASTLE IN IRELAND
Lieut. John E. Herlihy, formerly a dentist in this city, is now stationed at the U.S. Naval air station at Queenstown Ireland [Aghada]. In a letter to his brother, Dr. David J. Herlihy, 304 Main street, he gives a description of his work and tells of a visit to an old castle that is located near the station.
I have been fairly busy for a couple of weeks now and as a result I have not had any time to take any jaunts into the country.
I am operating here with a portable field outfit, collapsible chair, foot engine, and student case to hold instruments, something very similar to the outfit we used in school. The office cannot begin to compare with my office on the Missouri, but of course I can do the necessary work and that is all that is wanted.
There is hardly anything to do for excitement around here and in time I imagine it will get quite monotonous, though we are kept busy.
I generally go to town for weekends to meet the boys and to get the latest information about the war. We very seldom see any regular papers around here and I imagine you know more about what is going on on the western front than I do. I have many opportunities to talk with allied officers who have returned from the front and it is mighty interesting to listen to their experiences.
There is an old landowner who lives quite near here. I go over to have tea with him quite often. He has a wonderful estate of 1000 acres and some of the most beautiful gardens that I have ever seen. He lives in an old castle over 600 years old and he has taken me all through it. The walls of the castle are six feet thick and, of course, were built that way as a protection against attack in the old feudal period.
He showed me one room that had been built especially for King George IV who made a visit to the castle and who always objected to sleeping in a room that had ever been used by any one else. He showed me curios, antiques and paintings that he has collected from all over the world and they in themselves are worth a fortune. He and his wife live all alone in the castle and have a large coterie of servants.
After seeing how people have to live in this part of the world and what little they have to be glad about I am fully convinced that a man in the States even working for a salary is better off than a man with money over here– at least as far as enjoying life is concerned.
I know that by the time I see Fitchburg again, I will have had enough of traveling around, and I will be perfectly satisfied to settle down. By the looks of things now I do not expect to see the States again for a couple of years. Of course we can not tell just how long this war is going to last but we do know the allies are in for a finish fight.
I see Harold Pierce quite often and talk over old times. Try to write when you can as I would like to keep in touch with the latest news.
Fitchburg Sentinel, 1st June 1918
The video we recently produced on the WW1 USNAS Base at Aghada, where Lieutenant John Herlihy was based.
The next letter was published in Pennsylvania’s Wilkes-Barre Record on 27th August 1918. Thomas Bedner was also stationed at Aghada. He describes their pastimes in Cobh, their reception from the locals, and also a trip to the Blarney Stone.
LETTER FROM IRELAND
NORTH MAIN STREET BOY WRITES INTERESTINGLY FROM QUEENSTOWN
Thomas R. Bedner, son of A. Bedner, of North Main street enlisted in the naval aviation service early last fall, and is stationed at Queenstown, Ireland, at the naval air station. Before his enlistment he had been employed in mechanical capacities in Detroit automobile capacities in Detroit automobile work and at Bridgeport, Conn. Although not in the draft, Mr. Bedner decided to give his country the benefit of his skilled mechanical training and enlisted in the naval aviation. He writes to his father that he is in line for promotion and that his mechanical ability has stood him in good stead at the training station.
The following letter was received by his father. It contains interesting information of Ireland, the quaint customs and the conditions surrounding the navy boys stationed there:
“Dear Father– Well, everything is going fine with me here. We get ‘liberty’ every night and many of these free evenings we go to Queenstown where the Y.M.C.A. and Sailors’ Club have been established. Here we have movies every night– concerts by the ship’s band every Thursday night and a show and pictures every Saturday night. It’s about the only place in Ireland where we can buy ice cream.
“About a half mile from the club we have a dance auditorium. All civilians are excluded. The ship’s orchestra usually plays only American dance music, but once in a while they strike up an Irish tune, and then believe me the coleens are right there to whirl us around.
“These are about the only amusement places. If we do not feel like attending any of these we take long walks and visit some of the queer old villages. No street cars are seen around here. In some of the places they never saw a ‘Yank’ before. As soon as they see one or a group of us passing there is a general popping of heads out of windows as if there was a circus coming.
“During the summer there is only about five hours of darkness here. It is about 11 o’clock before it even starts to get dark. While I am writing this letter it is 9:30 and the sun is still bright in the sky. We don’t have to worry about lightless nights.
“Was to Blarny Castle when I first landed here and enjoyed the interesting experience of kissing the blarney stone. I almost broke my neck though before I managed to reach it. To kiss this stone, which is said to bless the person with ‘the gift of gab,’ it is necessary to go inside the castle, climb to the top window and then have someone you know who has a strong right arm to hold you by the feet with head down.
“A cemetery in which the Lusitania victims are buried is situated about two miles from Queenstown. All the sailors march there in a body on Decoration Day to decorate the graves with flowers. Many of the monuments and tombstones contain the inscription, ‘A Lusitania Victim; Foully Murdered by Germany.’
“It has been raining about every day this month. The weather is more like December than July and the mornings are very chilly.
“Would like to get the Record once in a while. I haven’t seen a Wilkes-Barre paper since I have been here.
“Give my regards to all and write soon,
The Wilkes-Barre Record 27th August 1918
There was another USNAS base on Whiddy Island in Bantry Bay. C.E. Durgee had correspondence about their 4th July celebrations published in The Daily Gate and Constitution-Democrat of Keokuk, Iowa on 14th September 1918.
AMERICAN Y.M.C.A. WORK IN WHIDDY ISLAND, BANTRY, IRELAND
BY C.E. DURGEE, GENERAL SECRETARY, WASHINGTON INN FOR AMERICAN OFFICERS, ST. JAMES’ SQUARE, LONDON, S.W.
With more of our men coming in here now, there is plenty of work to do. On the Fourth of July we had a great day– a baseball game in the morning, score 8-10, and in the afternoon a field meet, with the usual entries. The captain and officers attended; some played ball, and the men all voted it a great success. In the evening there was a mock trial, and a sing-song rounded out a most perfect day. The weather could not have been improved upon, and many of the men said they would never forget the Fourth of July on Whiddy “island.”
The captain sprang a surprise in the way of a flag raising, and now Old Glory floats in the breeze and cheers the hears of the brave men who are willing to lay down their lives in her defense. E. Evans has been quite ill and was sent to Queenstown by the doctor for observation. He is a very valuable man as an educator and in religious lines.
Arrangements are being made to chaperon a party to Killarney next Sunday. The captain here is very helpful and gracious, and told me that as long as we kept the men satisfied, to go as far as I liked. A number of fellows are wanting to send money home, and I think it should be encouraged. I don’t want the least opportunity to escape to be of service to these fine fellows. We have a dandy camp; the water supply is a problem, but the men are happy and willing to do anything.
Last night after “chow” we converted an almost impossible stony field into a respectable diamond. We had two auto trucks and hauled dirt and filled up holes, and all worked very hard. You can count on our sticking tight and making the best of whatever we have on hand here.
The Daily Gate and Constitution-Democrat, 14th September 1918
The most detailed description covered here was an account of Cobh from a Mr. Lockey in the Oregon Daily Journal of 26th November 1918. He spoke about the surrounds of the town in detail, together with a visit to the Lusitania graves and conversations he had alone the way with local children and a U.S. sailor from Idaho.
JOURNAL MAN AT HOME
At Queenstown Mr. Lockley reverently makes a pilgrimage to view the graves of those murdered on the Lusitania. He falls in with a bluejacket from Idaho, whose remarks are entertaining. There is also a word picture of Cork harbor.
Queenstown is on an island in Cork harbor. In the old says the city was called Cove, or the Cove of Cork. When Queen Victoria visited the city in 1849 it was renamed in her honor, Queenstown. Hundreds of thousands of Irish who are now Americans have had their last sight of Ireland at Queenstown as they stepped from Irish soil to the steamer that took them to the land of promise, for Queenstown is the principal port of embarkation for America. “You will see sailors from all the world ports on our streets in peace time,” said the hotel proprietor to me, “but nowadays the streets are thronged with men of the British navy, and your lads.”
R.J. Wynne, a Welshman who was born at North, Kan., and who is Y.M.C.A. secretary at Queenstown, said to me: “On Sunday, September 15, I had every bluejacket who came in register. Here is the list. There were 366 bluejackets who dropped into the ‘Y’ during the day. Every state in the Union but Idaho and Wyoming was represented.”
Cork harbor, from the heights above Queenstown, is a sight worth coming far to see. Scores of ships of every description ride at anchor in the harbor– transports and trawlers, destroyers and square-riggers, warships and tiny gasoline launches. Late one afternoon I decided to walk across the island beyond Spy Hill, where the farmer folk still speak their native Irish tongue. I stopped a black-haired, bright eyed little girl of 12 or 14 and asked her if I was on the road to Spy Hill. “Sure, sir, you are on the wrong road, altogether. You are going entirely away from it, sir.” “Where am I going?” I inquired. “I don’t know, sir, but if you keep on the road you are on now you will be after going to the cemetery. Many Americans go there to see the graves of the people who were drowned on the Lusitania. There are 260 buried in three big graves.” “How do I get there? Are there any turns in the road?” I inquired. “You will be after going straight along and the first you know straight ahead, sir. The road is very crooked, but just follow the turns you’re there.”
Presently I met a sailor lad who came onto the main road from a country lane. I said: “Do you know where the Lusitania victims are buried?” “Yes, sir. I’ll be glad to go with you and show you the place,” he said. The stone walls on both sides of the road were covered with blackberry vines that were loaded with ripe berries. We stopped now and then to eat berries. “My name is Ben Potter,” said the bluejacket. “My home is at Swan valley, in Idaho. It is about 30 miles from Idaho Falls, on the road from Pocatello to Butte, Mont. I just got a letter today from my mother. She says my youngest brother, 17 years old, has enlisted. there are four boys in our family, and all are in the service now. Say, this is some different from running a disc harrow on our 320-acre ranch in Idaho. The other day I had a seven-day furlough. I went to visit my brother in England. We went out to see a big Handley-Page plane go up. We asked the officer if we could do up. He said he was sorry, but it was against orders. he started the propeller. It made so much racket you couldn’t hear anything else. My brother said, “Let’s climb in just as he starts. he won’t know, and when he gets up he won’t throw us out.” So we got aboard. We hadn’t been up more than a minute or two till the officer looked back and saw he had some stowaways. He grinned at us and then turned around and headed the plane towards the seacoast. We got up about 4000 feet, and his engine died. he got it started again, and in about an hour we flew back to where we started. When we landed we thanked him. He said, “It is against orders to take up passengers. I didn’t have any. I took up some ballast. If the ballast enjoyed the trip, I am glad of it.” He was a pretty good sport, all right.”
We turned in at the old graveyard with its old world orderliness and its ancient Irish crosses over the graves. Soon we came to three large mounds, each of which was about 20×30 feet. The inscription stated that here were buried the victims of the Lusitania, torpedoed near that port. We stood silent. Finally my companion said, “Well, I would like to be home, but I don’t want to go till Germany is taught, and taught for all time, that murdering women and children can’t be done. I guess it’s up to us to help make the world a safe and decent place to live in.”
We started for the crest of a nearby hill, from which, like a panorama, the whole harbor was unrolled like a scroll before us. “I weigh 187, and I have to train down to 175 within the next 10 days, as I represent my ship in a wrestling match that is being pulled off,” said my companion. “I met a likeable chap recently– one that could ask as many questions as you can. His name was Peter Clark McFarlane. He invited me to his room and I spent the evening with him. He told me he was writing a series of articles for the Saturday Evening Post. I am going to watch and see if he mentions Queenstown and the fleet here, and if he does I am going to send the copy of the Post to my mother.”
Presently we found a sunken road bordered with ancient elms and beeches. I said: “Here is a regular trench, or ravine. We can make our way down it to the harbor.” “They drive their cows down these sunken roads, so I guess its name is a bovine rather than a ravine,” said my friend, the bluejacket. It was getting dark, so he hurried down to the dock to catch the “liberty boat” back to his ship, while I stood on a high point and looked out toward Forts Camden and Carlisle, which face each other across the entrance of the harbor. In the foreground was the lofty spire of the granite gray cathedral of St. Colman. Across the water a few miles lay Aghada, our naval aviation station, and not far from it was Crosshaven, near which is the amber-colored Owenabwee river, referred to in the plaintive Jacobite ballad of which the following is a verse:
“On Carrigdhoun the heath is brown,
The clouds are dark on Ardnalee,
And many a stream comes racing down
To swell the angry Owenabwee
The moaning blast is whistling past,
Through many a leafless tree,
But I’m alone, for he is gone;
My hawk has flown. Ochone Machree!”
The Oregon Daily Journal 26th November 1918
The San Francisco Chronicle of 22nd December 1918 brought a letter from a sailor who described his work aboard USS Allen, attacking U-Boats from Cork Harbour. He had also made a visit to the Blarney Stone, and was very protective of service in the Navy.
BOY SERVING OFF IRELAND WRITES HOME
Destruction of a German submarine by the explosion of an “Ash Can” dropped from a destroyer, the deck of which is seen in the photograph, which was sent to George A. Tracy by his son in the Navy.
GEORGE A TRACY RECEIVES LETTER FROM SON IN TRANSPORT CONVOY SECTION AT QUEENSTOWN
Personal experiences in dropping “ash cans” on German submarines from the after deck of a United States destroyer are recounted in a letter received by George A. Tracy, president of the Civil Service Commission, from his son, George A. Tracy Jr., who has been in very active service off the Irish coast.
Remarking that now the censorship is lifted he can tell his story with more detail, young Tracy begins by stating that the base of operations of the U.S.S. Allen, to which he was attached, and known as Base 6, is at Queenstown, County Cork, Ireland.
Queenstown looks “half as large as Redwood City” to this San Franciscan, who says that in the early days of the war the shore liberty of the boys of the destroyer flotilla included the city of Cork, but that owing to a rather vigorous celebration there, the shore liberty was cut down to the limits of Queenstown.
“Tell your Irish friends I kissed the Blarney Stone,” he writes, “The Lusitania was sunk just five miles off the coast at Queenstown, and there is a buoy that marks the spot today.”
Patrolling the Irish coast and convoying ships on the run from Queenstown to Liverpool and to Brest was the work of the destroyer squadron to which young Tracy was attached, and to illustrate the character of the work sends a photograph taken from a destroyer and showing a German submarine being lifted from the water by the explosion of an “ash can.”
Expressing a high regard for the work of the land forces, young Tracy instructs his father to reprimand anyone who may express the idea that the boys of the Navy have not been doing big things while the censorship prevented the telling of all the details.
“If they boost soldiers too high, we might go on strike, and, now that we have got them over here, refuse to bring them back,” he says. “But, believe me, the trips from now on will be pleasure trips, rather than the hunting variety.”
In the course of his service in the war Tracy writes he had the opportunity to visit London and Southampton in England, and Brest and Harve in France, and take a three days inland journey in that country.
San Francisco Chronicle 22nd December 1918
Our final letter comes from a sailor serving aboard USS Oklahoma in Bantry Bay, one of the vessels that would later be one of those attacked by the Japanese at Pearl Harbor in 1941. William Hoffman was somewhat ignorant of the history of the area, believing that before the American arrival Bantry had been a German U-Boat base, though his views do provide an insight into some of the tensions that often existed between locals and American servicemen. He nonetheless though it a beautiful country, but confessed that he thought the people talked funny. His letter was published in the Lincoln County News, North Carolina on 20th December 1918.
SAILOR HOFFMAN OF THE NAVY WRITES
Mr. Fred L. Hoffman of this city, has received a letter from his son, Sailor William Hoffman, a portion of which we are printing below. The letter is dated U.S.S. Oklahoma, “Bantry Bay”, Ireland, Nov. 20, 1918.
“Well I am in Ireland. Our base has been here in Bantry Bay since we came across to this side. It is as you can see on the map in the Southern part of Ireland. It lies between high mountains which are in every direction you look. Before the U.S. entered the war it was a German submarine base and the Irish supplied them with provisions, etc., as a good many of them were in sympathy with Germany. But now it is an American naval base and there are battleships, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, sub-chasers, mine sweepers and layers and all other kinds of vessels here. Zed Crawford is in here on a submarine chaser but I haven’t seen him. We have been operating and conveying in the most dangerous part of the war zone. Before we came over more than 500 ships had been sunk here off the Irish coast where we are on duty. We have convoyed thousands of troops ammunition and food supplies, etc., and have been along the coast of France, England, Scotland and Ireland. Of course besides convoying, our main object over here was to fight the German highseas fleet when she came out, but they didn’t come out.
The country of Ireland is beautiful. It is always green and is terraced in plots or squares so that it looks exactly like a checker board. There are very few trees and it rains about 9 out of every 10 days. The people seem odd and talk funny. You can’t hardly understand a word they say. Their shoes are very thick and heavy, many of them have iron soles, and the women most always wear shawls. Most of the horses and mules are very small and their buggies or carts have seats on the sides and are much higher from the ground than ours. And their trains are just like toys beside those in America. there are many saloons but it a very serious offense for an American sailor to get drunk and the very few that do are severely dealt with. I don’t see how the people live around here as their gardens are very small. They raise lots of sheep and cattle. there are many old castles and things of that kind to see.
We go on recreation and liberty in Bere Island, Castletown and Bantry. On Bere Island there are British soldiers, some who have already been in the trenches and others who are preparing to go. They have barbedwire entanglements, real trenches and everything there is in this modern warfare. In a little house they have every kind of poisonous gas the Germans use. All of us went through it, of course with our gas masks on. Some gas, believe me.
We have aboard very often many big speakers from over here, also from the States, who have given us very fine and interesting lectures of the war, etc. We have shows from London and other places and moving pictures every night. I have been getting your letters and papers and you can’t imagine how much they are appreciated all the boys shout with joy when mail comes aboard. I am in excellent health and have been exceedingly lucky in the way of sickness for there was about 200 cases of “flu” on here awhile back. Six of our boys and our ordnance officer died. They were buried in Queenstown, Ireland. A good many of our ships, submarines etc., are going back to the States pretty soon, but I think we will be over here some little time yet. William.
The Lincoln County News 20th December 1918
We hope to share many more of these letters from U.S. servicemen stationed in Cork during World War One in the months ahead.
We recently published the images and short biographies of 99 Irish women who applied for U.S. passports, based on either their marriage to a U.S. serviceman or their own services in support of the American military-effort during the First World War (see here). The data we collected offers us many potential insights, and we intend to use it to explore a number of different themes. In this post we have taken some of the data specifically relating to local women who married U.S. Naval personnel, and used it to visually map where they were from, and where they intended to make their new lives.
We identified 73 Irish women in the Passport applications who married U.S. Naval personnel serving in Ireland and Great Britain during the First World War. It should be noted that the vast bulk of these women had never been outside of Ireland prior to their marriage, and their intention to travel to the United States represented the first prospect of foreign travel for most of them. Up to 8,000 U.S. sailors served in or around Ireland at one time or another during the Great War, and it is no surprise that many struck up local romances. These liaisons with local women were often not welcomed by the local population, and occasionally led to violent clashes, particularly in Cork and Queenstown (Cobh) where the majority of bluejackets were based. The research of Dr. John Borgonovo of U.C.C. has shed considerable light on the often intense level of ill-feeling this created, and it will be something we explore further in a later post. Before looking specifically at the visualisations, it is worth remembering that in almost every case the women who married these sailors were very young. The graph below demonstrates this. Of the 73 women, only three were over the age of 30. The vast majority (64, or 90.9%) were aged between 17 and 25.
In order to visualise the data we have turned to Palladio, a web-based platform developed by the Humanities & Design Research Lab at the Center for Spatial and Textual Analysis, Stanford University. Palladio was developed for the visualisation of complex, multi-dimensional data. It is free to use– all that is required is having the information in tabular format to upload and the time to prepare it appropriately. For that purpose we decided to spatially explore two elements of the data– where the Irish women who married these U.S. Naval personnel were born, and where they intended to travel to in the United States.
The first map above presents each of the locations where Irish women who married U.S. Naval personnel were born. One of the most significant aspects of this is that women from every location where the Americans were based during the war are represented, including Queenstown (Cobh), Aghada, Passage West, Haulbowline, Bantry Bay, Wexford, Donegal and Dublin. The next map indicates the relative concentrations of women in these birthplaces, with 1 being the lowest and 18 the highest.
Unsurprisingly Dublin offers one of the main concentrations, but by far and away the most heavily represented area is Co. Cork, a result of the fact that the bulk of U.S. servicemen were based there during the war, particularly around Cork Harbour. Of the 73 women identified, 50 were from Co. Cork. That concentration warrants a closer look.
A focus on Co. Cork shows that Cork City dominates with 18, followed by Queenstown (Cobh) with 13 and then Youghal with 4. The majority of the other Cork women came from the east of the county, with outliers in locations such as Bantry, likely associated with the U.S. Naval presence in Bantry Bay and on Whiddy Island.
Each of these Irish women took had decided not only to the marry an American, but also to leave all they had known behind for the United States. Though there is some evidence to suggest that not all of them would ultimately travel across the Atlantic, the majority of them undoubtedly did. We turn now to the other side of the Atlantic, to see where they hoped to end up.
As is evident in the visualisation above, these Irish women were spread across the length and breadth of the United States, particularly in the east and mid-west. The map below illustrates their relative concentrations.
There is a notable concentration on the east coast, particularly in New York and in states such as Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, while some went initially to centres of the U.S. Navy where their husbands were based.
The final sets of visualisations are perhaps the most poignant. In them the data of the Irish women’s birthplaces and intended destinations are linked, showing how far from home they were travelling. They were journeying into the unknown, to meet up with husbands with whom they had at best spent only a few months, and often to locations where it is doubtful they knew a soul. There is also little doubt that for some, their decision to marry an American serviceman had met with the disapproval of, and potential estrangement from, their family in Ireland, another aspect we will return to in a later post.
We will continue to analyse the data we retrieved relating to these Irish women in future posts. To view the data upon which these visualisations were based, you can view the original post here.
As part of our ongoing U.S. Military in Cork Centenary Project, on Saturday we filmed a short video taking a look at the archaeology and history of the United States Naval Air Station in Aghada, Co. Cork. The video also touches on the economic and social impact of the base. You can watch the video below, we hope you enjoy it!
In the mid-1880s proposals were being put forward for the construction of a tramway between Midleton and Cloyne under the Tramways Act. While many local business people seem to have been in favour of the scheme, there was also considerable opposition to it, as it would have led to an increase in rates. The latter would appear to have won out. There were a number of newspaper articles about these proposals in 1884. One in particular provides some detailed information on both population and trade in Midleton, Ballinacurra, Cloyne and Ballycotton, and is worthy of reproduction in full here. It recounts evidence that was provided in support of and in opposition to the scheme, and gives a fascinating insight into certain aspects of life in the area; how important Ballinacurra was as a port, the size of the fishing population in Ballycotton, and the population difference in the 1880s between Cloyne and Midleton.
THE MIDLETON AND CLOYNE TRAMWAY
Mr. Atkinson, QC (for the promoters), stated that this was an application for the construction of a tramway between Midleton and Cloyne, to run about seven miles. The project was promoted by a number of local gentlemen, including Mr. Penrose Fitzgerald, Dr. Reardon, & c., and it was stated that £16,000 of the capital had been placed locally in case of the line not paying. Only a sum of some 7d or 8d in the £1 would fall on the barony which would be taxed. As an instance of the popularity of the line he might mention that every elected Poor-aw guardian was in favour of it. The Government had made a proposal to grant a sum of £16,000 for the construction of a new pier at Ballycotton, on condition of a sum of £4,000 being subscribed locally. this £4,000 was forthcoming, and with the construction of the pier the fishing there would be greatly developed, and a large traffic would result from it.
Mr. Savage French deposed that he was a promoter of the line in question. The population of Midleton last census was 308, and there were a large number of good business houses there. It was proposed to have sidings connecting the premises of the Cork Distillery Company, several business stores and mills, and the gas company, with the main line. At Ballinacurra the line would run down to the pier. He estimated the imports at 21,400 tons to Ballinacurra, which estimate did not include the private lighter trade. The seaboard traffic–inward and outward–was represented at something over 40,000 tons. This traffic principally went to Midleton. The population of Cloyne was 11,026. Cloyne was six miles from Ahadagh, and five from Midleton Railway Station. Between Ballinacurra and Cloyne the traffic would likely be 14,000 tons, which would be in addition to the other traffic referred to. At Ballycotton there were 147 men and some forty boys engaged in fishing and their fish traffic would be very large. The new pier would greatly develop the fish traffic. Witness had made an estimate as regards the passenger traffic, and he had put down the number as 3,000 passengers a year. Calculating this at 6d a head it would come to about £2 per day. The line would enable the buyers to come to the farmers for their corn. A sum of £1,500 had been already taken up locally. He confessed there was a good deal of opposition.
Cross-examined by Mr. Roche–He had himself entered five hundred of the fifteen hundred pounds he spoke of. He was aware of the fact that the grand jury of county Cork had held two meetings in regard to the question of this guarantee. At the first meeting a resolution was passed to the effect that the line was approved, subject to the promoters giving a ten years’ guarantee. At the second meeting, held some days subsequently, this requirement was passed over, and the line approved of.
The Lord Chancellor remarked that there was nothing extraordinary in this. The grand jurors had thought at first that they could better secure matters by requiring such a guarantee, but, finding that they could not legally exact this, they had given up the idea.
Mr. Connolly, Harbour Master, Ballinacurra, gave evidence regarding the imports and exports at his harbour.
Mr. James Penrose Fitzgerald, agent to Lord Midleton and to his brother, Mr. R U Penrose Fitzgerald, a director of the company, gave evidence in support of the proposal.
Mr. Murphy and Mr. Daniel Cronan, residing in the district, also gave evidence.
Mr. Custian, publican, explained that the estimate of trade traffic was framed on statistics supplied at a meeting of the traders of Cloyne specifically assembled for the purpose.
Mr. Stevenson, CE, who had drawn up the plans and laid out the line, gave evidence regarding the route and particulars as to estimate. This close[d] the case for the promoters.
Mr. Roche, QC, for the opposing ratepayers, contended that the proceedings before the grand jury showed that a great uncertainty prevailed regarding the desirability of this scheme. Twenty-three grand jurors had at one meeting refused to pass the scheme unless a ten years’ guarantee was given, and at a subsequent and a smaller meeting this resolution had been set aside.
The Lord Chancellor said they had nothing whatever to do with that circumstance now. It was sufficient for the committee that the grand jury had passed the scheme, and their business now was simply and solely to inquire into the merits and see if they could recommend it to the Lord Lieutenant for approval.
Mr. Roche, QC, continuing, stated that the figures given regarding the traffic were not strictly correct, but were based on wrong assumptions.
Mr. Smith, JP, was called in support of the appeal, and stated that he had land in the district the valuation of which was £459. He had a memorial against the scheme signed largely by farmers representing land to the amount of £15,817 valuation. Speaking as a farmer, he did not believe the line would pay. The Midleton board of guardians on two occasions dissented to the proposition as well as the Town Commissioners.
Cross-examined by Mr. Atkinson–He was not in a position to contradict the statement that with but the exception of three guardians–one of whom was himself–all the guardians representing the taxed area had assented. The memorial was signed after a statement by witness that the county cess would be increased if the line was constructed. The statement was not a conditional one.
Mr. Dennis McCarthy, shopkeeper, Midleton, presented a memorial signed by appellants representing £2,647 valuation in Midleton.
The committee adjourned at this state till half past eleven o’clock to-morrow morning. (1)
The Morning News, Belfast, 7th August 1884
The division that existed in the area surrounding the tramway was typified by the note in the Cork Examiner of 28th June 1884, which notified that readers that “in consequence of a meeting having been called in Cloyne for Tuesday, July 1st, on the above tramway, the meeting of cesspayers in opposition to same, will be held in the Courthouse, Midleton, on Thursday, July 3rd, at 12 o’Clock, which all cesspayers from the proposed area of taxation would find it to their interest to attend.” (2)
Though the tramway was never constructed, plans do appear to have been drawn up, which would be fascinating to see. We hope to do more research into this– if any readers have any more detail on the proposed scheme we would love to hear from you.
(1) The Morning News, (Belfast) 7th August 1884; (2) The Cork Examiner, 28th June 1884;
Image Credit: National Library of Ireland Flickr Page